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Beacons of Light
Muhammad: The Prophet
and
Fatimah: The Radiant

A Partial Translation

I’Idmu ‘1- Ward bi A ‘1dm
of Abü ‘All
al-FadI ibn al-Hasan ibn al-F (c. 468/1076 - 548/

BY

DR. MAHMOUD M. A

and
MRS. LYNDA G. CLarke
WOFIS
WORLD ORGANIZATION FOR IS] TEHRAN - IRA]

FOREWORD:
In Arabic
English translation

PROLOGUE

CHAPTER ONE
(The Holy Prophet of I

HIS BIRTH AND LINEAGE, AND THE TIM HIS DEATH
HIS NAMES, EPITHETS AND HONORABLE THE SPAN OF HIS LIFE


and exegete, and foremost teacher of these sciences. Students flocked to him to benefit from his great knowledge, and from his eloquence both in poetry and in prose.”
I’ldmu ‘i-Ward bi A ‘idmi ‘i-Hudă, is divided into four parts. The first part deals with the Prophet and Fatimah az-Zahra’, and the second part deals with the Commander of the Faithful, ‘All ibn Abi Talib. The third part narrates the lives of the rest of the Imăms, except the Twelfth. The fourth part discusses the imămate of the Twelve Imăms, as well as the birth and occultation of the TwFOREWORD



FOREWORD

It has been our intention for a long time to translate into English a book that would narrate the lives of the fourteen ma’sümfn (sinless ones)-the Prophet, peace be upon him and the people of his household, his righteous and pure daughter F ă timah az-Zahră’, peace be upon her, and the Twelve Imăms, peace be upon all of them. Such a book would, it was hoped, discuss the circumstances of the Prophet, his daughter Fă~imah and the Imäms of his descendants. It would present proofs of their special favor with Allah, and the exalted status with which He favored them. The book would also present proofs of the obliga-tions with which Allah has charged all men to obey and follow them.

When Kitdbu ‘l-Jrshdd ild Hujaj Allah ‘ala ‘l-’Ibdd (The Book of Guidance to the Proofs of Allah over Mankind) of ash-Shaykh al-Muffd was recently translated into English by I. K. Howard we felt that it had largely fulfilled our hopes for the author, AbU ‘Abdilah Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn an-Nu’măn al-’Ukbari al-Baghdadi, known as ash-Shaykh al-Mufrd (336-413/948-1022), was one of the foremost scholars of the Imămi Shi’i community, and one of its


The author studied with a large number of both Shl’l and Sunni7 scholars. His disciples and those who transmitted ahddfth (traditions) from him were likewise numerous, and ~ all were well -recognized scholars, at -Tabrisi wrote books and treatises on many religious, scientific and literary subjects.
A detailed account of at-Tabrisi and of his life, teachers, students and works (already written) will accompany the preface to a future complete translation of this important work of the author - as it is our hope that Allah, the Exalted, will soon provide us the means to complete this work. j Here, however, we will confine ourselves to what was said concerning him by two figures prominent in the fields of, belles-lettres, and biography.
at-Tabrisi’s contemporary and townsman the well-known historian, ‘All ibn Abi ‘l-Qasini ibn Funduq al-Bay-haql (493- 565/1 100-1169 or 70) says: “al-Imăm as-Sa’id I Abü ‘All, was originally from Tabrls, a place between Qashan and Isfahăn. He then settled in Mashhad-j Sanăbăd (i.e., present day Mashhad) at Tus, and his tomb is now to be found there near the Qatlagah Mo~ue... The Imăm was unique in his age in the science of grammer... and had expertise in the other sciences such that many were able to benefit and learn from him. He moved to Bayhaq in 523/1129, and settled there, where a school was founded for him in the quarter of Darwăzah-i ‘Iraq (‘Iraq Gate).

He also composed a great quantity as well of poetry in his youth...~ and has many other words also. He was distin-guished in arithmetic and algebra. He died in the capital city of Sabzawăr (i.e., Bayhaq) on the night of al-A~lljă, on the 10th Dhu’ldjijjah,548 (26th February, 1154), and was taken to his resting-place in Mashhad (Tdrikh-i Bayhaq, ed., Qaii Sayyid Kalim Allah Ijusaynl?’[ Hyderabad, Deccan Dd’iratu ‘i-Ma’drif al- ‘Uthmdniyyah, 1388/19681, pp.420-2l.)

Another learned and well-known scholar, the Wazlr Jam

s help, proceed with our task.

It is clear, however, that Kităbu ‘l-Irshăd lacks twoimportant sections which are necessary for the purpose of giving an account of the fourteen sinless ones. The first would be concerned with the m9st honored Prophet, peace be upon him and the people of his household, and the second would deal with the righteous and pure Fătiinah az-Zahră’, peace be upon her. We have also explained in the introduction to our forthcoming edition of Kităbu ‘1-Irshdd that these two sections would not have been ap-propriate for the purpose of the book of our ash-Shaykh al-Mufi7d, who was only concerned in it with the Twelve Imäms and the proofs of the imämate. But they are crucial for the aim which we are seeking to achieve here.

It is important to observe that the author of the book J’lămu ‘1- Ward bi A ‘1dm I ‘l-Hudd, of which this volume is a partial translation, used, in writing it the same methodology as Kitdbu ‘l-Irshdd, and was in fact guided by it. In fact, most of the chapters of J’ldmu ‘1- Wară are summaries of the chapters of Kitdbu ‘l-Irshdd, with important additions which the author found suitable for the subject matter as he treated it. More significant for our purpose, however, is the fact that the author added the two sections which are absent from Kitdbu ‘l-Irshăd. Finally, a translator was found who agreed to undertake the task of rendering these two sections into English.

Here we must refer to an important matter which has been treated at length in our introduction to Kităbu ‘l-Irshdd

- namely that at-Tabris!, like his predecessor al-Mufi7d, relies, in many of the discussions of his book, on the works of the historians and hadith transmitters of our Sunni brothers. In our introduction also we discuss in detail the reasons which compelled them, as well as others of our worthy scholars, to do so. With regard to the book I’ldmu ‘1- Ward, the author frequently cites his compatriot the famous traditionist and learned Shăfi’i jurist Abü Bakr A1~imad ibn al-Ijusayn al-Bay-haqi (384-458/994-1066), while dealing with the biogra-phy of the Holy Prophet. This is particularly the case with al-Bayhaqi’S book Dald’ilu ‘n-Nubuwwah. at-Tabrisi’s use of al-Bayhaqi’s work may lead to some misunderstandings of the position of Imămi Shi’is on some of the traditions cited from this book in I’ldmu ‘1- Ward. An example of this is certain traditions which at-Tabrisi quotes from al-Bayhaqi asserting that Abü Talib (the Prophet’s uncle) died without believing in the Muhammadan dispensation (see below, p.81). Yet all the Imăms have agreed on the falsity of this view, and were followed in this by Imămi Shi’i, and even the entire Shi’i community. The authenticity of yet another tradition concerning particular men among the Prophet’s companions spending of their wealth in provisioning the army for the Battle of Tabük (see below, p.188), which at-Tabrisi also quotes from al-Bayhaqi, is questioned by non-Shi’i tradi-tionists. They held a different view of this event, which we omit to mention here in order that we might not be accused of sectarian fanaticism.

As at -Tabrisi himself says concerning the verse of the Cave (see at-Tawbah, 9:40): “The Shf’ahs have something to say in connection with this verse concerning the Prophet (may the prayers of A1~ăh and peace be upon him and his family) and the sakinah (i.e., the peace or tranquillity which was sent down by Allah), which we have thought better not to relate so as not to be accused of anything (i.e., fanaticism).” (Majma ‘U ‘l-Baydn, Matba’atu ‘l-’Irfän, Sayda lLebanonj, 1355/1936, vol. 5,p. 32).
The author of I’ldmu ‘1- Ward bi A ‘ldmi ‘l-Hudd, ash-Shaykh Aminu ‘d-Din Abü ‘All al-Fadl ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Fadl at-Tabrisi (c. 468-548/1076-1154), was one of the foremost scholars, jurists and Qur’ăn commentators of the Imămi Shi’i community. He is the author of the well-known

commentary on the Qur’an, Majma ‘u ‘l-Bayăn ii ‘Ulümj elfth Imăni.


ch ălu ‘d-Din al-Urmawi, as well al-Majlisi’s Bihdru ‘i-Anwdr, where the entire book is copied in various contexts in several volumes. Another important source used in preparing the edition was Kitdbu ‘l-Irshdd, which was extensively used by at-Tabrisi himself, used in


this translation. Finally, the editor consulted all the sources which at-Tabrisi himself cites in the book.

This small volume was translated and annotated by Dr. Mahmoud M. Ayoub, research associate of the Centre of Religious Studies, and Lynda G. Clarke, doctral canditate of the Department of Middle East and Islamic Studies, University of Toronto, Canada. It is our hope that the rest of the book J’ldmu ‘i-Ward bE A ‘lamE ‘l-Hudd, will be one day translated into English by Dr. Ayoub and Mrs. Clarke, or that someone else qualified would undertake this worthy task.



WORLD ORGANIZATION FOR ISLAMIC SERVICES,

(Board of Writing, Translation and Publication).
17/ 3/1406

30/11/1985

Tehran - IRAN.

PROLOGUE


In the Name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate
Praise be to Allah, the One and only God: The eternal refuge, who did not beget, nor was He begotten. Nor is there anyone equal to Him [Qur. 1121. Far exalted is He over having mate or offspring, or being subject to number and effort. Sanctified over resemblances is His essence. His great-ness transcends the minds of men, and His majesty has baffled the subtleties of human reason. Through clear testi-mony does His proof shine forth, and His wisdom is manifest in all things. He established truth, and made clear His proofs and elucidatjons through the beacons (that is, the Imăms) and the clear evidences which He raised up. He destroyed falsehood, as He utterly refuted its errors.

Allah’s blessings be upon His chosen servant and Prophet, the most excellent of prophets and messengers, and of people who have come and those who are yet to be - the bearer of glad tidings who invited men to Allah by His leave, the luminous lamp [see Qur. 33:45-61 and master of the masters of the Arabs and non-Arabs - Muhammad ibn ‘Abdilläh ibn ‘Abdi ‘l-Muttalib.

Peace be upon his vicegerents, the rightly guided Imăms, who are satisfied with Allah’s pelasure: they who are the


PROLOGUE


chosen of Muhammad’s fragrant shoot; who are the guard-ians of his sacred law; they who are protected (by Allah] from all impurity and abomination; they who are chosen over all humankind and the jinn. Through them anyone promised good by Allah shall receive His promise; nor will anyone be able to traverse the sirdt ~, except by their per-mission. They are the cushion of the middle course [upon which all must lean] 2 Anyone who seeks to precede them shall go astray, and he who turns away from them shall perish. Yet he who abides with them shall achieve his goal. They are like the gate of forgiveness I bŕb hittahl ~, and like the Ark of Noah - he who enters it shall be saved, arid he who abandons it shall drown and perish. They are the elect of the Apostle and the chosen of his descendants. Allah linked their knowledge to knowledge of the Prophet, and made love for them as binding as love for him. They are the foundations of Islam: the Imăms of humankind and the proofs of the Guardian, the [Lord of] Peace (see Qur. 59 : 231. They are lamps in the darkness and guides to every desire. The best of blessings and peace be upon them, so long as lightening flashes, clouds pour down their rain and gardens adorn themselves with fruits and herbage.

[The author] has thus determined to write a book containing the names of the guiding Imăms: the masters of authority, the people of command, the people of remem-brance [see Qur. 4:59 and 16:431 and the people of the household of revelation from whom Allah has removed all impurity, and purified with a great purification (seeQur. 33 :331. It shall contain their biographies: the times of birth, and the spans of their lives and reports of their private lives and righteous deeds. It shall present proof texts sup-porting the truth of their imămate, as well as the signs which Allah manifested concerning them and which testify to their exalted status over all others.

which they are the bearers; he would then be more worthy to be first mentioned. The miracles which bespeak his apostleship, the signs pointing to the truth of his prophethood, his great miracles and incontrovertible proofs, must all be set forth. He thus sought Allah’s aid in beginning and completing such a work, and entitled it “I’ldmu ‘i-ward bi a ‘idmi ‘i-h ucla”. He divided it into four parts: the first deals with the Messenger of Allah; the second concerns itself with the Commander of the Faithful, ‘All ibn Abi Talib; and the third deals with the Imăms of his descendants, beginning with al-1Iasan ibn ‘All and ending with al-Hasan al-’Askari (the eleventh Imăm), peace be upon them. The fourth and final part discusses the imămate of the twelve Imäms, as well as the twelfth Imăm. Each part is in turn divided into different chapters and sections, rich with precious knowledge and wisdom, each separately and all together. For in this book I have brought forth a brilliant pearl for the hearts of the faithful, and the noblest sounds to be poured upon the ears of the people of certainty. Allah the Exalted grants support; He guides to the right course and to wise counsel. In Him do i trust, and to Him do I turn.


* * * * *



CHAPTER ONE

This section deals with the Prophet Mu~tammad, may Allah’s blessings be upon him and the people of his house-hold: his lineage, birth, the time of his call by Allah to apostleship, his age and the time of his death, his epithets and characteristics, the proofs of his prophethood, and his mir-acles, his children and wives, and his paternal and maternal

uncles. It provides information concerning some of his battles and other events of his life. It consists of six chapters; the first, divided into three sections, deals with his lineage and birth, his age and the time of his death.

HIS BIRTH AND LINEAGE, AND
THE TIME OF HIS DEATH

The Prophet Muhammad was born on Friday before sunrise on the 17th of Rabi’u ‘l-Awwal in the ‘Year of the Elephant’, 570/71.

According to Sunni tradition, he was born on Monday. Traditionists have, however, differed concerning the date. Some said it was on the second night of Rabi’u ‘l-Awwal, others on the tenth. This was after thirty-four years and eight months of the reign of AnUshirwăn son of Qubad, King of Persia, who killed Mazdak and exterminated the Dualists.

CHAPTER ONE


This section deals with the Prophet Mu~tammad, may Allah’s blessings be upon him and the people of his house-hold: his lineage, birth, the time of his call by Allah to apostleship, his age and the time of his death, his epithets and characteristics, the proofs of his prophethood, and his mir-acles, his children and wives, and his paternal and maternal uncles. It provides information concerning some of his battles and other events of his life. It consists of six chapters; the first, divided into three sections, deals with his lineage and birth, his age and the time of his death.


HIS BIRTH AND LINEAGE, AND
THE TIME OF HIS DEATH




The Prophet Muhammad was born on Friday before sunrise on the 17th of Rabi’u ‘l-Awwal in the ‘Year of the Elephant’, 570/71.

According to Sunni tradition, he was born on Monday. Traditionists have, however, differed concerning the date. Some said it was on the second night of Rabi’u ‘l-Awwal, others on the tenth. This was after thirty-four years and eight months of the reign of AnUshirwăn son of Qubad, King of Persia, who killed Mazdak and exterminated the Dualists.



8It is to this that the hadfth attributed to the Messenger of Allah refers: “I was born during the reign of the just and righteous King.” His birth occurred also after eight years and eight months of the reign of ‘Amr ibn Hind, King of the Arabs. His agnomen was Abu ‘l-Qasim. Anas ibn Mălik re-ported that, “When Lbrăhim son of the Prophet was born, Gabriel came to him and said, ‘Peace be upon you, Abu Ibrăhim
rtlch - ibn Hăshim - whose name was ‘Amr - ibn ‘Abd Manăf - whose name was al-Mughirah - ibn Qusayy - whose name was Zayd
- ibn Kilăb ibn Murrah ibn Ka’b ibn Lu’ayy ibn Ghălib ibri Fihr ibn Mălik ibn an-Nadr - known as Quraysh - ibn Kină-nah ibn Khuzaynah ibn Mudrikah ibn Ilyăs ibn Mu~1ar ibn Nizăr ibn Ma’add ibn ‘Adnăn. It is reported that the Prophet said, “When my genealogy reaches ‘Adnăn, then go no fur-ther”. It is also related on the authority of Umm Salamah the wife of the Prophet, who said, “I heard the Prophet say (recounting his own lineage), ‘Ma’add ibn ‘Adnăn ibn Udad ibn Zayd ibn Thară ibn A’raqu ‘th-Thară’.” Umm Salamah also said: “Zayd is Hamaysa’; and Thară is Nabt; and A’räqu ‘th-Tharä is Ismă’il (Ishmael) ibn Ibrăhim (Abraham).” She continued: “Then the Apostle of Allah recited, ‘‘Ad, Thamüd and the people of the well (Rass) and many gener-ations between’ [Qur. 25:381 ,which only Allah knows.”

ash-Shaykh Abü Ja’far ibn Băbawayh, may Allah be p1eased~ with him, reported another genealogy as follows:

‘Adnăn ibn Udd ibn Udad ibn Yămin ibn Yashjub ibn Mun-liar ibn Säbugh ibn Hamaysa’; or in another version: ‘Adnăn ibn Udad ibn Zayd ibn Yaqdud ibn Yaqdum al-Hamaysa’ ibn Nabt ibn Qaydar ibn Ismă’fl ibn Lbrăhim. It is generally believed by most historians and genealogists that ‘Adnăn was Udd ibn Udad ibn al.-Yasa’ ibn al-Hamaysa’ ibn Salămăn ibn
PROPHET’S BIRTH AND LINEAGE


IQur. 33:45-61. Allah also called him mundhir (warner), as in His saying: You are surely a warner IiQur. 13:7]. Allah called him ‘abd Allah (God’s servant) as in His saying:

When the servant of Allah rose up to summon him, they nearly rushed at him in crowds IQur. 72:19]. Allah called him mudhakkir (reminder) in His saying: You are surely a reminder [Qur. 88:21]. Allah also called him Tdhd and Yasmn.4

Others of the Prophet’s names and epithets are re-ported in the hadTth. Thus Muhammad ibn Ismă’il al-Bukhări reported on the authority of Jubayr ibn Mut’im that he heard the Apostle of Allah says: “I have many names: I am Muhammad, I am Abmad. I am al-măhf (the effacer), for through me Allah shall efface rejection of faith. I am al-hashir (the gatherer), for all men shall be gathered at my heels (on the last day). I am al- ‘dqib (the last to follow), after whom there shall be no other (prophet) .“~ In another tradition:

“I am the effacer” is taken to mean, he through whom the sins of those who follow him shall be effaced. In yet another tradition he is called al-mu qafff (that is he who followed all other prophets), nab iyyu ‘t-tawbah (the prophet of peni-tence), nab iyyu ‘l-malhamah (the prophet of war), al-khdtim (the seal), al-ghayth (the succorer), and al-mu tawakkil (he who trusts in Allăh).


afs10 * He is called the prophet of war because he was sent with the per-mission to slay. It is related that one day as he prostrated himself in prayer, a man of the rejecters of faith brought the entrails of a she-camel, which he threw at his back. The Prophet exclaimed: “0 people of Quraysh what sort of hospitality is this? By Him in whose hand is Mutlammad ‘s soul, I have come to you with the sword!” Aba Jahl ran to him and said: “0 Muhammad, you have never been reckless!” For this reason he was called “the prophet of war”. (ed.)

HIS NAMES, EPITHETS AND
HONORABLE LINEAGE



Among his names are those which are in the Qur’an; they are as follows: the Apostle, and the unlettered Prophet, as Allah says: They who follow the Apostle, the unlettered Prophet whom they find inscribed in the Torah and the Gospel IQur. 7:157]. Others are: al-rn uzamrnil (enshrouded) and al-rnudaththir (enwrapped), as in Allah’s saying: 0 you who are enshrouded, and 0 you who are enwrapped [see Qur. 73:1 and 74:1]. Still others are: an-nadhir al-mubfn (the clear warner), as Allah says: Say, Jam the clear warner [Qur. 15:89], and Ahmad, as Allah says: and announcing the coming of an apostle after me, whose name is Ahmad [Qur. 61:61. His name Muhammad is also mentioned, where Allah says: Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah [Qur. 48:291, and al-Mustafă, as in Allah’s saying: Allah elects Messengers from among angels and men [Qur. 22:75]. He is also called karirn (noble), as in Allah’s saying: It is surely the speech of a noble Messenger [Qur. 69:40]. Allah called him nür (light), as in His saying: There have come to you from Allah a light and a clear Book [Qur. 5:151. He also called him ni’mah (favor) in His saying: They know Allah’s favor, yet they deny it (Qur. 16:831, and rahmah (mercy), as He says:

We have not sent you, except as a mercy to humankind [Qur. 21:1071. He also called him ‘abd (servant), as Allah says:

It is He who sent down the criterion (Furqän) to His servant [Qur. 25:1]. He is called ra ‘uf rahirn (kindly and com-passionate), as in Allah’s saying: He is kindly and com-passionate toward the people of faith [Qur. 9:1281. Allah called him shdhid (witness), mubashshir (bearer of glad tidings) nadhir (warner) and dd’i (summoner), as He says:

We have sent you as a witness, bearer of glad tidings, warner, a summoner to Allah by His leave, and a luminous lamp[Qur. 33:45-6]. Allah also called him mundhir (warner), as in His saying: You are surely a warner [Qur. 13:7]. Allah called him ‘abd Allah (God’s servant) as in His saying:

When the servant of Allah rose up to summon him, they nearly rushed at him in crowds [Qur. 72:19]. Allah called him mudhakkir (reminder) in His saying: You are surely a reminder [Qur. 88:21]. Allah also called him Taha and Yăsin.”

Others of the Prophet’s names and epithets are re-ported in the e~adith. Thus Muhammad ibn Ismă’il al-Bukhări reported on the authority of Jubayr ibn Mut’im that he heard the Apostle of Allah says: “I have many names: I am Muhammad, I am Ahmad. I am al-măhi (the effacer), for through me Allah shall efface rejection of faith. I am al-hăshir (the gatherer), for all men shall be gathered at my heels (on the last day). I am al- ‘aqib (the last to follow), after whom there shall be no other (prophet).”5 In another tradition:

“I am the effacer” is taken to mean, he through whom the sins of those who follow him shall be effaced. In yet another tradition he is called al-mu qafft (that is he who followed

22 (the succorer), and al-mu tawakkil (he who trusts in Allăh).*

The names of Muhammad in ancient scriptures are also numerous. Some of these are: ma ‘udh ma ‘udh, which is in



* He is called the prophet of war because he was sent with the per-mission to slay. It is related that one day as he prostrated himself in prayer, a man of the rejecters of faith brought the entrails of a she-camel, which he threw at his back. The Prophet exclaimed: “0 people of Quraysh, what sort of hospitality is this? By Him in whose hand is Muhammad’s soul, I have come to you with the sword!” Aba Jahl ran to him and said: “0 Muhammad, you have never been reckless!” For this reason he was called “the prophet of war”. (ed.)


Hebrew in the Torah.6 In the Psalms his name is Faruq (the one through whom falsehood is distinguished from truth).

ash-Shaykh AbU Bakr Ahmad al-Bayhaqi related in his book Dală’ilu ‘n-Nubuwwah on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbăs, who said that the Messenger of Allah said, “Allah, exalted is He, divided creatures into two groups, and placed me in the best group. Thus Allah speaks of the people of the right and the people of the left [see Qur.90:18-19]; I am of the people of the right, and I am the best of the people of the right. Allah then divided the two groups into three, and placed me in the best third. This is clear from His saying:

And the people of the right hand, who are the people of the right hand? And the people of the left, who are the people of the left? And those who precede, precede. they are the ones brought near [Qur. 56:8-101. I am among those who precede, and I am the best of those who precede (that is in accepting true faith and in the performance of good deeds). Allah then divided these three groups into different tribes and placed me in the best tribe. Thus He says: We made you into nations and tribes [Qur. 49:13]. I am the most righteous of the children of Adam, and the noblest of them in the sight of Allah. I do not boast. Allah then made of the tribes different houses and placed me in the best house. Thus He says: Surely Allah wishes to remove all abomination from you people of the house and purify you with a great purification [Qur. 33:33]. I and the people of my household are therefore purified from all sins.”7

al-Häkim AbU ‘Abdillăh reported on the authority of Suf-yăn ibn ‘Uyaynah who said: “The best verse which the Arabs recited is that which AbU Tălib recited concerning the Prophet:

And (Allah) derived for him a name from His name in order that He might exalt him;

The Lord of the Throne is Mahmüd, and he is

Muhammad.8

THE SPAN OF HIS LIFE



Others said that this verse was composed by Jlassăn ibn Thăbit (the famous poet of the Prophet) as part of a poem which begins with the words:

Do you not see that Alldh sent His servant with His
clear proof;

For Allah is Most High and Most Glorious.

Among the Prophet’s epithets mentioned in the hadith are: ‘the camel rider’, ‘eater of the shoulder’9, ‘prohibiter of the eating of dead animals’, ‘he who accepts gifts”0, ‘the seal of prophethood’, ‘holder of the thick staff’ (as a sign of authority), and ‘the messenger of mercy’. It is said that his agnomen (kunyah) in the Torah is Abu ‘l-Arămil (the man who cares for widows), and his name is the man of the thick staff.

It is reported that the Prophet said: “I am qutham”’, ‘the perfect one’ and ‘the possessor of all goodness’ “. He also said, “I am the first and the last, the first in prophethood and the last to be sent by Allah as a messenger.”


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