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the people in the Mosque of Medina. As the number of his followers began to increase, they built a pulpit for him. When he stood on it to speak, however, the branch cried out in longing as would a she-camel cry when she loses her young. The Prophet descended and embraced it, and the branch moaned contentedly as would a child when it quiets down.

The story of the ewe of Umm Ma’bad is yet another miracle in testimony to Muhammad’s prophethood. When the Prophet migrated from Mecca to Medina, accompanied by Abü Bakr and ‘Amir ibn Fuhayrah, with ‘Abdullăh ibn Urayqit al-Laythi as their guide, they passed by Umm Ma’bad, a woman of the Khuzä’ah tribe. She sat by her tent wrapped in a long garment. They asked if they could buy from her some dates and meat. She had nothing to offer them; the people were hungry. She insisted, however: “Had we anything to offer you, you would not have been deprived of our hospitality.” The Prophet saw a ewe standing beside her tent. He asked: “What is this ewe, 0 Umm Ma’bad?” She answered: “It is a sick ewe, unable to go out with the sheep to graze.’’ He asked: ‘‘Does she have milk? ‘‘No’’, she answered, “she is too weak for that.” He then asked:

“Would you permit me to milk her?” “Yes”, she replied, may my father and mother be a ransom for you! If you see that she has any milk, then go ahead and milk her.”

The Messenger of Allah had the ewe brought to him. He passed his hand over its udders, praying, “0 Allah, bless the ewe of this woman.” The ewe spread its legs, and its milk flowed copiously. The Messenger of Allah called for a vessel, big enough only to quench the thirst of the group. The milk came pouring until a thick foam brimmed over. He then gave the woman to drink, and she drank her fill. Then he gave his Companions to drink, and they drank their fill as well. Finally he himself drank, and said: “The one who gives others to drink, must himself be the last to drink!” He repeated the process once more, and they all drank again their fill. They remained with the woman till the morning, then they departed.

Soon after, her husband Abh Ma’bad returned, driving before him a few emaciated goats, with little marrow in their bones. When he saw the milk he asked “Where did this come from, while the ewe is dry, and there is no other animal to give milk in the house?” She answered: “By Allah it was so, except that a blessed man passed here who did thus and thus. . .“, and she related the story.

Another miracle concerned Surăqah ibn Mălik ibn Ju’shum. Suraqah was famous among the Arabs; they com-posed poems about him and he was the talk of their assem-blies. He pursued the Prophet - who was on his way to Medina - seeking to capture him and receive a reward from the Quraysh. Yet, when he thought that he was about to attain his object, the legs of his horse sank into the ground so that they could not be seen, even though he was in a smooth and firm spot. He knew that what had happened to him was a heavenly punishment. He thus cried out: “0 Muhammad, pray to your Lord that He release my horse, and I give you Allah’s covenant (dhimmah) that I tell no one of your whereabouts.” The Prophet prayed, and Surăqah’s horse jumped up as though he had freed himself from a tightly knotted rope. Suraqah was a cunning man, and he saw that the Prophet would soon be a man of note. He therefore asked that the Prophet write him a ‘pledge of security’(amăn), which he took and went away.’9

Ibn Isl3aq related that Abü Jahl recited some verses in disapprobation of Surăqah. The latter answered him also in verse:

o Abu ‘l-Hakam, if you had seen what happened, To my horse when his legs sank into the ground;

You would have known through a clear sign that Muhammad is a prophet;

This fact no one can hide.

Hold your men, then, from him,

For I see that his affair will soon be manifest.20

It is related that the Prophet said to Abfl Bakr on that journey, “Keep men away from me, for it is not fit for a prophet to lie.” Thus, when Abü Bakr was asked, “What are you? “, he would answer only, “A traveller”, and if he was asked, “Who is with you?”, he would answer, “A guide to guide ~

Still another of the Prophet’s miracles concerns the account of the cave (al-ghdr). This was the time when he took shelter in a cave near Mecca which was frequented by many travellers, and in which many shepherds sought shelter. It was the time of his migration to Medina. The people of Mecca went out seeking to capture him, but Allah concealed all traces of him from their sight, even though he was right before their eyes - Allah prevented them from reaching him and veiled their eyes, so that they could not see him. Yet, they were the most scheming of men among the Arabs. Allah sent a spider which wove its web at the entrance of the cave, which concealed him. The spider’s web convinced them that he was not there. Finally, they despaired of finding him. as-Sayyid al-Himyari (a well-known Shi’i poet of the second century) composed the following verses concerning this incident in his famous ode known as ‘The Gilded’ (al-Mu dhahhabah):

When at last they came to the entrance of his cave, Allah placed over him a woven spider ‘s web.

Allah concealed him, so that the advance party declared, ‘There is no one in the cave to be sought’.

The Great King prevented them from harming him,

For anyone whom the King wishes to protect is never harmed.

Allah also sent two wild doves which sat at the entrance of the cave. The young men of Quraysh came, one from every clan with their sticks and swords, until they were the distance of forty cubits from the Prophet. A man ran ahead to see who was in the cave, but he turned back. His com-panions asked: “Why do you not look in the cave?” He answered: “I saw wild doves at the mouth of the cave, so I knew that there was no one inside.” The Prophet heard what he said, and prayed for the two doves, requesting a special reward for them. They were thus directed by Allah to the’sacred precincts’(haram) of Mecca, where they lived in safety ever after.

Another miraculous proof was the testimony of a wolf to the truth of Muhammad’s claim to apostleship. A man was grazing his sheep one day when he neglected his flocks for a brief hour. A wolf attacked the flocks and snatched a sheep. The man ran after the wolf until finally the wolf threw the sheep on the ground and spoke to the man, saying:

“Why do you deprive me of the sustenance which Allah has sent me?” The man exclaimed: “A great wonder, the wolf speaks!” The wolf answered: “Rather you people are more strange, and in your behaviour is a lesson for those who wish to be admonished! Here is Muhammad calling men to the truth in the valley of Mecca, yet you are oblivious to his call!” The man was guided by this admonition and hastened to the Prophet to declare his Islam. He left a great honor for his progeny after him among both Arabs and non-Arabs. His descendants used to say: “We are the posterity of him with whom the wolf spoke.”

The warning of the lamb shoulder is yet another miracle. A Jewish woman of Khaybar (an oasis near Medina) offered the Prophet a lamb shoulder, which she had poisoned. She enquired: “Which part of the lamb would the Messenger of Allah prefer?” “The shoulder”, she was told. She thus

poisoned the shoulder, which she offered to him and his Companions. As they all sat to eat, the Prophet stopped them, saying: “Do not touch it, for it tells me that it is poisoned! Had it not been that I did not wish the Jewish woman to be in doubt (that is, concerning his prophethood), I would not have accepted it in the first place.” Nor would he have gathered his Companions to eat of it. He himself ate a tiny morsel before the shoulder spoke to him. The effect of this poison used to recur every year, until finally Allah made it the cause of the Prophet’s martyrdom. This was a trial from Allah, so that it may be known that M4iammad was a mortal.

During the Siege of the Trench (al-Khandaq, see below) the Prophet’s companions had no food to eat and to feed their families. They came close to death from hunger and thirst. One of them invited the Prophet one day to a meagre meal. All his Companions came along him, yet there was food only for one or two people. The Messenger of Allah said:

“Fill your vessels”, addressing all the people present. He prayed and blessed the food, then distributed it among the people, who were thousands. They all ate their fill as though they had never been hungry or thirsty before. The food, however, remained as it was, as though untouched.

On yet another occasion, during the Battle of TabUk (see below), the Prophet’s Companions and the poor among the people came to him complaining of hunger. He called for any food in their possession to be brought, but they had no more than a few dates. He placed his hand on the dates and said: “Eat in the name of Allah!” All the people ate until they were full and the dates remained as they were, while they all looked on.

Another time, during one of his battles, the Prophet passed by a well which had so little water that it would not wet the throat of one person. The people with him complained of thirst. He took an arrow from his quiver and gave it to one of his Companions, saying: “Go down and stick it in the well.” No sooner had he done so than the water gushed out with great force until it flowed over the mouth of the well. Thus the crowds, numbering thirty thousand, all drank and filled their vessels as provision for the journey. There were among them as well men of the Hypocrites, who were present in body, but not in mind.

One day the Prophet came upon a she-gazelle that had fallen into a trap which a man had set up for hunting. The gazelle said: “0 Messenger of Allah, I have a young kid that needs milk. I have fallen into this trap; set me free that I might go and feed my kid. The Messenger of Allah said:

“How can I let you go, when the owner of the trap is ab-sent?” She answered: “I shall return.” He thus let her go and sat waiting until she returned. When the owner of the trap also returned, the Messenger of Allah interceded for the gazelle, and the man set her free. In commemoration of this event, people built a mosque on that spot.

A small community complained to the Prophet about the brackish water of their well. They were suffering great thirst because they could not drink the salty water. The Prophet came with a group of his Companions to the well, and expectorated in it. The well was not only brackish, it was also nearly dry. Soon, however, it burst out with cool and pure water. To this day it has come down as a highly prized source of pride from one generation to the next. Their testimony is surely valid. It was one of the miracles by which Allah attested to the veracity of His Prophet. This is because the followers of Musaylimah, when they heard of this mir-acle, asked him to perform one like it. He came to a well and expectorated in it, but its water turned so salty and foul, that it was like the urine of donkeys. Both its location and the people who own it are to this day known to all.

On another occasion, a woman came to him with her young son requesting that the Prophet touch him and bless him, for the child had a deformity. The Prophet had mercy upon her - for mercy is one of his attributes, Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him and the people of his household. He passed his hand over the boy’s head, and immediately his hair I became straight and his illness was cured.

News of this reached the people of Yamămah (Musay-limah’s district). A woman came with a sick boy to Musay-limah. He passed his hand over his head, but immediately his hair fell off. His descendants are to this day bald.

One day some men of the tribes of ‘Abdu ‘l-Qays brought the Prophet some of their sheep. They asked him to give the animals some mark by which they could be distinguished. He placed his fingers at the base of their ears, which immedi- ~ ately turned white. The miracle of these sheep stands as a testimony to this day through their descendants.

Still another miracle concerns the account of the prayer for rain. It rained one day so hard over Medina that the ~ people were afraid that their houses might be destroyed. The j Messenger of Allah prayed: “Let it rain around us, 0 Allah, not over us!” Immediately the clouds moved away from Medina and gathered around it like a wreath, and thus the sun was shining in Medina while the rain was coming down in torrents all around it. This was seen by all: the rejecters of faith as well as the people of faith. The Messenger of Allah smiled until his teeth could be seen and said: “Would that Abü Tălib were alive to see, so that his eyes would be con-soled! Who can recite for us his verses?” The Commander of the Faithful (‘All) said: “Perhaps, 0 Messenger of Allah, you wish to hear the verses:

Of radiant countenance is he,

Through his face rain clouds may be prayed for. A help for orphans is he,

And a protector of widows.

The poor and errant of the clan of Hdshim circle around him,

For with him they find favor and generosity.

His miracle on the day of the Battle of Badr is also well known. He took a handful of sand and threw it in the faces of the enemy, exclaiming: “May these faces be dishonored!” Allah immediately made these grains of sand so effective that no man of the Associators (mushrikün) was spared. Their eyes were filled with sand. The Muslim warriors and the angels (with whom Allah aided them)2’ began to slay and capture the rejecters of faith. They found every man they captured face down and unable to see.

One day the Prophet’s she-camel was lost. The Hypo-crites (of Medina) were filled with doubt. They said: “He informs us of the affairs of heaven, yet he knows not where his she-camel is!” Fearing that the people of faith might fall prey to the whisperings of Satan, the Prophet told them where she was, describing in detail her circumstances and the tree by which she was entangled. When they went to see, they found her exactly as he had described.

Another well-known miracle was the splitting of the moon in two for the Prophet. This happened towards the beginning of his prophetic career. This miracle is alluded to in the Qur’an (in sürah 54). It is related in a sound tradition on the authority of ‘Abdullăh ibn Mas’Ud that: “The moon was split into two parts. The rejecters of faith of Mecca said:

“This is magic with which the son of Abü Kabshah* has

* The Associators used to identify the Prophet as Abü Kabshah’s Son because Abü Kabshah, a man of the tribe of Khuză’ah, opposed the people of Quraysh by refusing to worship idols. Thus, when the Prophet also refused idol-worship, they identified him with Abü Kabshah. It is also said that Abü Kabshah referred to the Prophet’s maternal grandfather whom he resembled. (ed.)

charmed you. Enquire of travelers if they have seen what you saw; then he would be truthful. But if they did not see it, then it is simply magic with which he has charmed you.’ Travellers coming from many different directions were asked; they all confirmed that they had seen the moon split into two.”22

It is also related that one of the Prophet’s Companions was hit in the eye in a battle. His eye was gouged out so that it fell upon his cheek. He ran to the Prophet for help. The Prophet took the eye and placed it back in its socket, and it became the better of the man’s two eyes: morç healthy and more sharp-sighted than the other.

In yet another tradition, it is related that a man called AbU Barä’, known as Muld’ibu ‘l-Asinnah (‘the skillful wielder of spears’), suffered from dropsy. He sent to the Prophet a man called Labid ibn Rabi ‘ah with a gift of two thoroughbreds and a number of dromedaries. But the Prophet refused the gift, saying: “I will not accept the gift of an Associator.” Labid said: “I would not have thought that any Arab of the Muçlar lineage would refuse the gift of Aba Bară’!” The Prophet insisted, however, saying: “If I to accept a gift from any Associator at all, I would have accepted the gift of Aba Bară’.” Labid said: “He seeks healing from you for a serious ailment which has afflicted his stomach.” The Prophet took a handful of earth, spat on it and said: “Soak this in water and give him to drink.” The man took it, thinking that the Prophet was mocking him. But when the sick man drank the wa, he was immediately cured. It was as though he was released from a fetter.

Another of the Prophet’s miracles was the complaint of an old camel to him after returning to Medina from the battle of Banü Tha’labah. The Prophet asked: “Do you know what this camel is saying?” Jăbir (the transmitter of this tradition) answered: “Allah and His Messenger know

best.” The Prophet said: “He tells me that his owner had worked him hard, but now that he has become old and sores have appeared on his back and he is no longer able to work, his owner has decided to slaughter him and sell his meat. 0 Jăbir, go with him to his owner and bring him to me.” Jăbir answered: “By Allah, I do not know his owner.” The Prophet said: “The camel shall lead you to him.” Jăbir went with the camel until they came to the quarter of BanU 1Ian?alah, or Banü Waqif. There he asked: “Who among you is the owner of this camel?” One of the men answered: “I am.” Jăbir said: “The Messenger of Allah has sent for you.” Jăbir then brought him and the camel to the Messenger of Allah. The Prophet said to the man: ‘‘Your camel tells me so-an-so.~~ The man answered: “It is as he says, 0 Messenger of Allah.” “Sell him to me”, - the Prophet demanded. “He is yours”, answered the man. The Prophet, however, insisted on buying the camel. Having done so, he marked him on the side and left him grazing in the environs of Medina and when one of us needed a ride for a short distance the Prophet used to loan it to us. Jăbir later reported that: “I saw the camel when his wounds had healed and his strength had returned.”

One day AbU Jahl swore by Allah that he would break the Prophet’s head with a stone when he fell prostrate in prayer. When the Messenger of Allah stood at prayer, praying and prostrating between the two rukns (corners) - the Black Stone and the Yemenite - and facing the Ka’bah, AbU Jahl carried a stone and came toward him. But as he approached, he suddenly turned away, pale with fear, his hands gripping the stone tightly until at last he threw it away from him. Some men of the Quraysh came to him, enquiring: “What has happened to you 0 Abu ‘l-Ijakam?” He answered: “A powerful camel stood between me and him, the like of its head, thick neck and sharp teeth as I had never seen. It was about to devour ~

Among the Prophet’s miracles was that AbU Jahl bought camels from a man in Mecca, paying him less than the agreed price. The man went to the assembly of Quraysh seeking their help and reminding them of the sanctity of the Ka’bah. They mockingly referred him to the Prophet. The man went to him calling for help. The Prophet went with him and knocked at the door of Abfl Jahl, who recognized him and came out to meet them. He met them as though deranged. Abü Jahl recognized the man, and turning to the Prophet said: “Welcome to you, 0 Abu ‘l-Qasim!” The Prophet said:

“Give this man his due.” “I will”, he said, and immediately gave the man what he owed him. When he was asked concern-ing this, he said: “I saw what you did not see! I saw over his head a dragon with open mouth; by Allah, had I refused, it would have swallowed me up!”

It is also reported that Asmă’ daughter of Abü Bakr said:

“When the Qur’ănic verses: Perish the hands of Abü Lahab [Qur. 1111 were sent down, the one-eyed Umm Jamil

daughter of Harb (and wife of AbU Lahab), caine to the Prophet, screaming and saying: “We have refused to listen to mudhammam (‘the disgraced one’ which AbU Lahab and his wife used as an epithet of derogation of the Prophet Muhammad). His religion we have abandoned, and his command have we disobeyed.” All the while, the Prophet was sitting in the mosque with AbU Bakr. AbU Bakr warned him: “0 Messenger of Allah, here she is coming; I am afraid that she may see you!” The Messenger of Allah answered:

“She will not see me.” He then recited a portion of the Qur’an with which he protected himself. It is related that he recited: When you recite the Qur’ăn, we place a thick veil between you and those who do not believe in the here-after [Qur. 17:451. Thus, she stood by Abü Bakr’s side, but did not see the Messenger of Allah. She said: “0 Abü Bakr, I was told that your companion has composed satirical verses against me.” He answered: “No, by the Lord of this House (the Ka’bah), he did not satirize you!” She turned away exclaiming: “The people of Quraysh know well that I am the daughter of the best man among them!”

It is related on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbas that a group of men of the MakhzUm tribe conspired to kill the Prophet. Among them were Abü Jahl, al-Walid ibn al-Mughirah, and some men of the MakhzUm tribe. As the Prophet was praying one day, they sent al-Walid to kill him. He came to the spot where the Prophet was praying; he could only hear his voice, but could not see him. He thus returned to them and told them what had happened. They sent AbU Jahl with al-Walid and others for the same purpose. When they came to the spot where the Prophet was praying, again they could only hear his voice in prayer. As they approached, they heard the voice behind them. When they turned towards it, it again was heard behind them. Finally they departed, without being able to touch hint This is in accordance with Allah’ s saying: Before them have We placed a barrier, and behind them a barrier, so that they cannot see [Qur. 36:91.

It is also related that the Prophet set out by night on his she-camel for the Battle of at-Ta’ if (a town near Mecca). He travelled through a valley called Najib, with thick and dense trees. He ran into a sidr tree as he dozed upon his mount. The tree, however, was split into two halves in order that he might pass through it. It has remained standing thus, on two halves of a trunk, to our own time. It is well-known, and is called the ‘sidr tree of the Prophet.’

Were we to recount all the miracles and signs of the Prophet (Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him and the people of his household) related by traditionists, this book would have become far too long, for our Prophet possessed many more signs than any other prophet. Some authors have even asserted that his signs exceed a thousand. It is

best, therefore, that we limit ourselves, for the sake of brevity, to a few accounts. In the following traditions shall briefly recount, if Allah wills, some of his signs and miracles which deal with his call to prophethood, the people of his household, his battles, the coming of delegations to him, and so on till the time of his death.

His signs. in foretelling unknown and future events are beyond number. Allah says in the Qur’an: He it is Who sent His Messenger with guidance, and the religion of truth, in order that He make it prevail over all religion even though the Associators may detest it [Qur. 9:33]. It is related on the authority of Ubayy ibn Ka’b (a well-known Companion, one of the scribes of revelation and an important authority on Qur’an exegesis) in reference to this verse, that the Messenger of Allah said: “Convey to this community glad tidings of glory, exaltation, Divine support and a firm stand-ing in the earth. Anyone of them who performs the work of the life to come only for the sake of this life, shall have no portion in the hereafter.” It is also reported on the authority of Buraydah al-Aslami (one of the Companions) that the Prophet said: “Armies will be dispatched to war. Be among those who go to Khurăsăn, and dwell in the city of Marü. This is because it was built by the man of the two horns23, who blessed it and said: ‘No evil shall befall its inhabitants.’” Abü Hurayrah reported that the Messenger of Allah said:

“The Day of Resurrection will not come until KhUzistăn and Kirniăn (two provinces in Iran) are vanquished by a group of non-Arabs, with red faces, snub noses and small eyes. Their faces are like shields.”

Anas ibn Mălik (a well-known Companion and tradi-tionist) reported that the Messenger of Allah related that one night he dreamt that he was in the house of ‘Uqbah ibn Răfi’ (one of the Companions) and that dates of high quality were brought before them. The dream was interpreted by the Prophet to me: “Exaltation shall belong to us in this world and good health in the wto come, and our religion has prospered.”

Accounts of other miracles are those which deal with the Prophet predicting what was to happen to his community (ummah) after hi-rn. Thus, he is reported to have said: “Do not turn to be rejecterS of faith (kuffdr) after me, beheading one another.” It is also related on the authority of Sahl ibn Hunayf that the Prophet said: “I shall be the first to get to the haw~124 whoever, comes shall be given to drink, and who-ever drinks shall never thirst. Then groups of people shall come to me; I know them and they know me. But they shall be prevented from coming to me.” AbU Hăzim (the trans-mitter of this tradition) said: “an-Nu’măn ibn Abl ‘Ayyăsh heard me relating this tradition to the people. He asked:

‘Did you hear Sahl say that?’ ‘Yes’, I answered.” He con-tinued: “I bear witness that Abü Sa’id al-KhudIi La very well-known Companion and traditionistl heard the Prophet say further: ‘These are my community, but it will be said to me, “You do not know what they did after you!” Then will I say: “Perish those who deviated after me.”’ “Qays ibn Abi Hăzim also reported that when ‘A’ishah (the Prophet’s wife) arrived at al-Haw’ ab25, she heard the barking of dogs. She said: “I am sure that I will return. For I heard the Prophet say to us, ‘At whom among you shall the dogs of al-Haw’ab bark?’ “ az-Zubayr said to her, “Perhaps Allah will make peace through you among the people.”

It is reported that one day az-Zubayr met ‘All at the Saqifah of Banü Să’idah26, where the Prophet was present. The Prophet asked az-Zubayr, “Do you love him?” az-Zubayr answered: “What prevents me from so doing?” The Prophet then said: “How would it be then if you were to fight against him, and you are the wrongdoer?” Abü Jarw al-Măzini reported that he heard ‘All say to az-Zubayr (on the day of the Battle of Camel): “1 adjure you by Allah that you tell me, did you not hear the Messenger of Allah say to you that you shall fight with me and that you shall be doing me wrong?” “Yes, but I forgot”, said az-Zubayr.

It is also related by Muslim in his as-Sahih 27 that the Prophet said to ‘Arnmăr ibn Yasir: “You shall be killed by a transgressing group of people.” Abu ‘l-Bakhtari has reported that ‘Ammăr was brought a drink of milk. He smiled; when asked why, he answered: “The Messenger of Allah told me that it shall be the last drink I have before I die.”

Still another of Mu~iammad’ s prophecies was what he said concerning al-Khawărij (‘the seceders’, a group of zeal-ous men who left ‘Air’s camp during the Battle of Siff in):

“There shall be a group in my community who speak good words, but act wickedly. They shall call others to the Book of Allah, but they themselves have nothing to do with it. They shall recite the Qur’ăn, but their recitation will not penetrate further than their throats. They shall slip out of the faith as would an arrow slip out of its bow. They shall no more return to the faith than would an arrow, after being shot, return to its bow. They are the most evil of character among men. Blessed is he whom they shall slay, and blessed is he who shall slay them. Anyone slaying them would be more worthy (of obedience) to Allah than they.” People asked: “0 Messenger of Allah, what are their distinguishing marks?” He answered: “Shaved heads.” *

Another of the Prophet’s signs is his saying to the Corn-mander.of the Faithful (‘Ali): “This community shall betray you after me.” He also said to him: “You shall fight after

* The great scholar al-MajIisi commented on this tradition as follows:

“That shaved heads were their distinguishing marks does not mean dis-approbation of shaving the head, for the Prophet said: ‘it shall be a de-formity for your enemies; but a sign of beautification for you.’ “(ed.) me against those who shall violate their covenant (năkithin), those who shall deviate from the truth (qasitin) and those who shall abandon their faith altogether (mariq in).

Among his prophecies is his foretelling of the slaying of lIujr ibn ‘Adiyy and his companions by Mu’ăwiyah. It is related that Mu’ăwiyah went to see ‘A’ishah, who asked:

“What made you slay the people of ‘Adhră’ 28, Hujr and his companions?” He answered: “0 mother of the faithful, I considered their death to be for the good of the community, while their remaining alive would have been evil for the com-munity.” She said: “I heard the Messenger of Allah say:

‘Some people shall be killed in ‘Adhră’ for whom Allah and the inhabitants of heaven will be filled with wrath.’ “ It is also related that ‘All said: “0 people of Iraq, seven men of ‘Adhră’ shall be slain. They shall be like the people of the Trench.” 29 This was a reference to the slaying of Uujr ibn ‘Adiyy and his companions.

Still another prophecy was the Prophet’s- foretelling of the martyrdom of al-Ilusayn ibn ‘All, peace be upon them both. It is related on the authority of Umm Salamah lone of the Prophet’s wives], that the Prophet one day lay down to sleep and woke up disturbed. He lay down again and woke up less disturbed than the time before. A third time he lay down to sleep, but when he awoke this time, he held some red soil which he began to turn over in his hand. “I asked”, Umm Salamah said: “‘What is this soil, 0 Messenger of Allah?’ He replied: ‘Gabriel has informed me that this one (and he pointed to al-I3usayn) shall be killed in the land of Iraq. I said: “0 Gabriel, show me the soil of the spot on which he shall be slain,” and this is its soil.’

Anas ibn Mălik reported that the angel of rain one day asked permission to visit the Messenger of Allah, and it was granted him. The Prophet said to Umm Salamah: “Keep the door closed, so that no one comes in to diturb us.”

al-Husayn ibn ‘All, however, came and forced his way in. He began to throw himself on the Prophet’s back. The angel asked: “Do you love him?” “Yes”, replied the Prophet. The angel continued: “Your community shall kill him. I will, if you wish, show you the spot on which he shall be slain.” The angel then showed him some red soil, which Umm Salamah carefully wrapped up in the end of her garment. She concluded: “Thus we always knew that al-Ilusayn would be slain in Karbală’.”

Another of the Prophet’s signs was that he foretold the martyrdom of the people of his household. al-Häkirn AbU ‘Abdillăh al-Hăfiz reported on the authority of the ‘Master of all worshippers’, ‘All ibn al-Husayn (the fourth Imăm), who related from his father on the authority of his grand father (‘All), who said: “The Messenger of Allah visited us one day, and we made for him a meat dish. Likewise, Umm Ayman brought him another meat dish and a bowlful of dates. The Messenger of Allah ate, and we ate with him. Then he performed the prayer ablutions, rubbing his head and face with his hand. He then turned towards the qiblah (direction of prayer) and invoked Allah as he willed. He then fell on his face, with copious tears running down his cheeks like rain. We stood in too great awe before the Messenger of Allah to ask him the reason for his weeping. But al-Ijusayn jumped up, and, throwing himself over the Messenger of Allah, said: ‘0 father, I see you act as you never did before.’ He answered: ‘My son, I was never as happy before as I was today with you. But my beloved Gabriel came to me and told me that you shall be slain, and that your deaths shall be in diverse places; this caused me great sorrow. Thus, I prayed Allah that He be gracious toward you.’ al-Husayn asked: ‘But who shall make pilgrimage (ziyărah) to us, scattered and far apart as our tombs shall be?’ The Messenger of Allah repli.~d: ‘A group of my community, wishing by his only to show kindness and love to me. When the Day of Resurrection shall come, I will myself visit them and take them all by the shoulders to save them from its fears and calamities.’ “ 30

His prediction of the massacre of the people of al-Harrah (a district of Medina strewn with volcanic rocks, known as al-harrah) was yet another sign of Muhammad’s prophethood. It is related on the authority of AyyUb ibn Bashir who said: “The Messenger of Allah went one day with his Companions on a journey. As he passed by Ilarrah of Zuhrah,hestopped and exlaimed: ‘To Allah do we belong, and to Him we shall return!’ (Qur. 2:156]. Those who were with him were troubled, thinking that this was concerning their journey. ‘Umar ibn a1-Kha~tăb asked: ‘0 Messenger of Allah, what was it that you saw?’ He answered: ‘This does not concern your journey.’ ‘What is it then, 0 Messenger of Allah?’ they asked. He answered: ‘In this 1Iarrah the best of my community after my Companions will be slain.’”

Anas ibn Malik said: “On the day of the Battle of al-Harrah seven hundred men, all Qur’an reciters, were slain. Among them were three of the Prophet’s Companions.” al-Hasan (son of ‘All and grandson of the Prophet) used to say: “In the Battle of al-Harrah, the people of Medina were slain; hardly anyone escaped. Among those who were slain were the two sons of Zaynab, a foster-daughter of the Mess-enger of Allah. They were her sons by Zam’ah ibn al-Aswad. The Battle of al-Harrah took place on Wednesday, three days before the end of Dhü’l-Hijjah, 63 A.H. (AuguSt, 683).”

The Prophet also foretold that Ibn ‘Abbäs would lose his sight in old age, and that he would be granted great know-ledge. Likewise, he said to Zayd ibn Arqain (a well-known Companion), after the latter had suffered a serious illness:

“No harm shall befall you in your illness. But what would you say if you were to grow old after me and become blind?”

Zayd answered: “I shall take Allah as my sufficient trust, and endure it patiently.” “Then you will enter Paradise without reckoning”, the Prophet assured him.

The Prophet also foretold that al-Walid ibn Yazid was to be an evil man, as he indeed turned out to be. It is reported that Sa’id ibn al-Musayyab (an important tradi-tionist) said: “A male child was born to a half-brother of Umm Salamah, whom they named al-Walid. The Prophet reproached them saying: ‘So you give the names of your Pharaohs (that is, oppressive rulers) to your children! Change his name and name him ‘Abdulläh. This is because a man shall be born in my community called al-Walid, who shall be more wicked towards my community than Pharaoh was towards his people.’ Thus people thought that he meant al-Wali7d ibn ‘Abdi ‘l-Malik, but then we found out that it was al-Walid ibn Yazid (an Umayyad ruler).”

Another prophecy was the Prophet’s saying concerning Banft Abi ‘l-’As and Banü Umayyah, as related on the auth-ority of Abü Sa’id al-Khudri: “When the number of the children of Abu ‘l-’As shall reach thirty men, they shall use the religion of Allah as means of corruption, the servants of Allah as slaves and Allah’s wealth as a commodity among themselves.” In another tradition, related on the authority of AbU Hurayrah, it is forty men.

Ibn Murhib reported: “I was with Mu’ăwiyah ibn Abi Sufyan when Marwan (ibn al-Hakam, the first of the Mar-wănid rulers) came in to talk to Mu’ăwiyah about a matter that concerned him. He pleaded: ‘Grant me my need, for by Allah, my burden is heavy - I am the father of ten, the uncle of ten and the brother of ten.’ When Marwăn turned to go, Mu’awiyah turned to Ibn ‘Abbăs, who was sitting with him on his couch, and said: ‘I bear witness before Allah, 0 Ibn ‘Abbăs - do you not know that the Messenger of Allah said that when the Sons of al-Hakam (that is, Marwăn’s father) shall reach the number of thirty men, they will use Allah’s wealth among them as a commodity; that they will oppress His servants as their own slaves, and will use Allah’s religion as cause of corruption? When, however, their number will reach four hundred and ninety-nine, their destruction will come more quickly than it takes to chew a date.’ Ibn ‘Abbăs replied: ‘By Allah, yes.’ Marwän left without having his need granted. His son ‘Abdu ‘l-Malik came to Mu’ăwiyah to dis-cuss the matter further. When he left, Mu’ăwiyah again turned to Ibn ‘Abbăs and said: ‘I ask you in the name of Allah, 0 Ibn ‘Abbăs, do you not know that the Apostle men-tioned this man and said that he shall be the father of four tyrants?’ Ibn ‘Abbăs again answered: ‘By Allah, yes.’

A man called Yüsuf ibn Măzin ar-Răsibi related that a man reproached al-Hasan ibn ‘All (a.s.) saying: “You have indeed brought dishonor upon the people of faith.” al-Ijasan said: “Do not reproach me, may Allah have mercy upon you! The Messenger of Allah foresaw the sons of Umayyah delivering speeches upon his pulpit one man after another, and that displeased him. Thus, Allah revealed to him: We have surely given you al-kawthar (abundance) [Qur. 108:11, which is a river in Paradise. He also sent down: We have surely sent it (the Qur’an) on the night of determination (laylatu ‘l-qadr). Would that you knew what the night of determination is! The night of determination is more excel-lent than a thousand months [Qur.97:1-3j .This means the thousand months reign of the sons of Umayyah. We counted the months of their reign, and it was neither more no less.”

The signs belonging to this category are too many for this book to contain. What we have here reported must thus be sufficient for people of understanding.

* * *


This chapter will present a brief account of the life of the Messenger of Allah (Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him and the people of his household) from the time of his call until his migration to Medina. It will indicate the time when he was commanded to fight, and will present some of the signs and miracles which were wrought at his hands during that period. It consists of eight sections.

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