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with your work!”
Salman climbed down and filled a tray with the dates of that palm and took it to the Messenger of Allah. The Messenger of Allah asked: “What is this?” “It is only a freewill gift (soda qah) of our dates”, Salman answered. He continued: “We heard that you people are strangers who have come to these lands. I wish, therefore, that you eat of our charitable gift.” The Messenger of Allah said to his Companions: “Go ahead and eat.” Salman said to himself in Persian and counted on his fingers, “This is one (test).” Later, he brought the Prophet another tray of dates. The Messenger of Allah again asked: “What is this?” Salman answered: “I see that you do not eat of a freewill gift. This is, therefore, a gift (hadiyyah), which I present to you.” The Prophet said to his Companions: “Mention the name of Allah and eat.” He too ate. Salman counted again on his fingers saying: “This is a second (test)”, again muttering to himself in Persian.
Salman then went around to the back of the Prophet. The Messenger of Allah took down his shirt off his shoulders, and Salman saw the seal of prophethood and the mole, which he began to kiss fervently. The Messenger of Allah asked: “Who are you?” He answered: “I am a man of the Persians. I left my home since such and such a time.” He then recounted to him his long story.
Salman entered into Islam, and the Messenger of Allah gave him the glad tidings: “Be patient and of good cheer, for Allah shall find a way of relief from the yoke of this Jewish man.”
That evening, AbU Bakr left the Prophet and went to Medina where he stayed with one of the An~ăr. The Mess-enger of Allah, however, remained in Quba, in the house of Kulthüm ibn at-Hidm. After the Messenger of Allah had offered the sunset and night prayers, As’ad ibn Zurărah came to him masked. He greeted the Messenger of Allah and was glad at his coming. As’ad then said: “0 Messenger of Allah, I would not hear that you are in a place and stay so long away from you. It is rather because of the things you know which exist between us and our brothers of the Aws. For this reason, I did not wish to come to them. But I could no longer bear to stay away from you.” The Messenger of Allah cried out to the people of Aws: “Who among you would give him protection?” They all answered: “0 Mess-enger of Allah, our protection is yours to grant; you grant him protection!” “No”, he replied, “rather let some of you take him into their protection.” Then ‘Uwaym ibn Să’idah and Sa’d ibn Khaythamah said: “We shall do so, 0 Messenger of Allah.” They thus took As’ad into their protection, and he used to come daily to the Messenger of Allah, listening to his words and praying behind him.
The Messenger of Allah remained there fifteen days. Abü Bakr then came to him and said: “0 Messenger of Allah, en-ter Medina, for the people are eager for you to dwell among them.” He answered: “I shall not leave this place until my brother ‘All joins me.” The Messenger of Allah had already sent to him saying: “Bring the family and come.” AbU Bakr said: “I do not think that ‘All would join you.” “Yes”, the Prophet said, “soon he shall come, if Allah wills.”
After these fifteen days had passed, ‘All came with his family. When he arrived, Sa’d ibn ar-Rabl’ and ‘Abdullah ibn Rawăhah were busy smashing the idols of the Khazraj. Every man of high status had an idol in his house, which he cleaned and perfumed. As well, every clan of the Aws and Khazraj had their special idol in their house of assembly. They honored such idols, covering them with a special cloth and offering to them animal sacrifices. When, however, the twelve men of the An~ăr (whom the Prophet had chosen) came to the city, they cast out the idols from their homes
and the homes of those who heeded them. When later the seventy (chosen men) came, Islam spread rapidly among the people, who then began to break their own idols.
After ‘Au ‘s arrival, the Messenger of Allah remained (in Quba) for one or two days, after which he mounted his she-camel and prepared to depart. All the people of ‘Amr ibn ‘Awf came to him saying: “0 Messenger of Allah, stay with us, for we are indeed a people of serious purpose and constant striving. We are a people of true alliance and protection.” He answered: “Rather she (his mount) has been so commanded.”
The tribes of the Aws and Khazraj heard of the coming of the Messenger of Allah, and they took up arms and came running around him and his she-camel. He did not pass by any quarter of the Ansar but that they jumped up before him and, taking hold of the rope of his she-camel, beseeched him to stay with them. All the while the Messenger of Allah would say: “Let her go, for she is so commanded.” He went on until he arrived at the quarter of the tribe of Sălim.
The Messenger of Allah left Quba on Friday, and arrived at the quarter of BanU Salim around noon. The men of the. tribe of Sălim came to him and exclaimed: “Come 0 Mess-enger of Allah to men of serious purpose, steadfastness, true allegiance and protection.” His she-camel knelt ~iown at the door of their mosque — they had in fact built a mosque before the arrival of the Messenger of Allah. He dismounted at their mosque and offered the noon prayer and delivered a sermon. This was the first mosque in which the Messenger of Allah delivered a Friday sermon. He prayed towards Jeru-salem, and the number of those who prayed behind him on that day was around one hundred.
The Messenger of Allah rode his she-camel and let loose her rope, and she roamed freely until she halted at the dwelling of ‘Abdullăh ibn Ubayy. The Prophet stopped,

thinking that the latter would offer him hospitality. As dust rose, ‘Abdullăh ibn Ubayy placed his sleeve over his nose and said: “Go you to those who have beguiled and deceived you, and brought you here. Go enjoy their hospitality, but do not impose yourself on us in our homes.” Allah then sent against the people of Banü ‘l-Hublă small ants which destroyed their houses, so that they had to beg hospitality of others. The people of Banü ‘l-Hubla were so called because the grandfather of ‘Abdullăh ibn Ubayy was nicknamed ‘Ibnu ‘l-I~jublă’ (son of the pregnant woman).
Sa’d ibn ‘Ubadah (a well-known Companion of the An~ar) said: “0 Messenger of Allah, let not your heart be troubled by anything which this man may say. For we had all agreed to set him up as king over us, but now he sees that you have despoiled him of an opportunity which was close at hand. Come and be my guest, 0 Messenger of Allah, for there is no one in the Aws or Khazraj who owns as many wells as I do. We are people of steadfastness and honor. Do not, therefore, bypass us, 0 Messenger of Allah.”
The Messenger of Allah, however, let loose his she-camel’s rope, and she trotted until she halted in the spot of the Mosque of Medina, which was then not a mosque but a resting ground for animals, belong to two orphans called Sahl and Suhayl. The two boys were in the protection of As’ad ibn Zurărah. The she-camel knelt down at the door of Abü AyyUb Khälid ibn Yazid. The Messenger of Allah dismounted and immediately people gathered around him offering their hospitality. The mother of AbU Ayyüb, how-ever, quickly ran and removed the she-camel’s saddle and took it into her home. As the men continued to insist, the Messenger of Allah asked: “Where is the saddle?”, and was told that Abu Ayyüb’s mother had taken it into her home. The Prophet said: “A man should always be with his goods.” As’ad took hold of the she-camel’s rope and led her into
his home. Abü AyyUb had a room over his house, and he did not wish to be higher than the Messenger of Allah. Thus he asked: “0 Apostle of Allah, which is preferable to you, an elevated house, or one at ground level?” He answered:
“Ground level is more suitable for us on account of the people who will come to see us.” Abü Ayyüb later recounted:
“Thus my mother and I lived in the upper room. But I was afraid any time I brought in a pail full of water that a drop may fall on the Messenger of Allah. My mother and I, moreover, used to go up to the room carefully in order that he might not notice us, and we spoke in whispers. When he slept, we mno movement. Whenever we cooked in our room, we used to close the door for fear that the Messenger of Allah might be affected by the smoke. An earthenware jug of water fell one day so that the water was spilled. The mother of AbU AyyUb took a velvet garment which, by Allah, was the only one we had, and used it to mop the water for fear that it might drip down over the Messenger of Allah.”
Muslims of the Aws, Khazraj and the Immigrants (muhă-jirün) used to come to have audience with the Messenger of Allah. AbU Umamah (the agnomen of) As’ad ibn Zurarah used to send every day to the Prophet a large dish of tharid (that is, of sopped bread with broth), covered by a large chunk of meat. All present would eat to satiation, but the dish would be returned as though untouched. Likewise, Sa’d ibn ‘Ubădah used to send to the Prophet supper every day which he would share with whomever was present. The dish was also returned full as it was brought. As’ad ibn Zurărah, Sa’d ibn Khaythamah, al-Mundhir ibn ‘Amr, Sa’d ibn ar-Rabi’ and Usayd ibn Hudayr used to take turns in sending lunch and supper to the Prophet. It is reported that one day Usayd cooked for him a large earthenware pot full of food, which he himself carried to him because he found no one else to do so. He was a noble man, chieftain.
He came to the Messenger of Allah just as the latter had returned from offering prayers. “Did you yourself carry it?” asked the Prophet. “Yes”, answered Usayd, ‘I found no one else to carry it.” The Prophet exclaimed: “Allah’s blessings be upon such a household!”
It is reported in the book entitled Dală’ilu ‘n-Nubuw-wah49 on the authority of Anas ibn Mălik who said: “The Messenger of Allah came to Medina; as soon as he entered it, the men and women of the An~ar came to him begging, ‘Come stay with us, 0 Messenger of Allah!’ He answered:
‘Let the she-camel go, for she is so commanded~’ The she-camel finally knelt down at the door of AbU AyyUb. There-upon, a few maidens of the tribe of Banü ‘n-Najjăr came forth with tambourines which they beat as they chanted:
‘We are maidens of Banü ‘n-Najjar! How we would love to have Muhammad as a guest in our protection.’ The Messenger of Allah came out to them and asked, ‘Do you love me?’ They answered: ‘Yes, by Allah, 0 Messenger of Allah!’ He repeated three times: ‘I too love you 0 Bană ‘n-Najjar.’
‘All ibn Ibrăhi7m ibn Hăshim reported that the Jews of the Qurayzah, an-Nadir and Qaynuqa’ tribes came to the Prophet and asked: “0 Muhammad, to what are you inviting people?” He answered: “I call men to bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that I am the Apostle of Allah, whom you find described in the Torah50 and of whom your own learned men have already informed you — my appearance shall be in Mecca, and my migration shall be to this land. One of your own learned men who came from Syria also spoke to you saying: ‘I left both wine and leavened bread and came to privation and a diet of dates, seeking a prophet who shall be sent forth in this plain (that is, Medina). His appearance shall be in Mecca and his migration to this city. He is the last of the prophets and the most excellent of them. He shall ride a donkey, wrap himself in an outer
garment, and will be satisfied with a piece of dry bread. In his eyes there is redness, and between his shoulders is the seal of prophethood. He shall carry his sword upon his shoulder, and will not be dismayed by anyone he confronts. He shall be a smiling man, but also a slayer. His authority shall spread to the furtherest regions that can be reached by the hoof of a camel or that of a horse.’
They answered: “We have heard what you have to say, and have come to ask for a truce between us, that we shall be neither with you, nor against you. We would not support anyone against you. In return, you shall neither trouble us, nor anyone of our coreligionists until we see how it shall be with you and your people.” The Messenger of Allah agreed with them on these conditions. Thus, they drew up a written agreement that they would not support anyone against the Messenger of Allah or anyone of his Companions, be it with the tongue or hand, with arms or horses, neither openly nor in secret, neither by night nor by day. “To all this, Allah shall be an All-knowing Witness. If they revoke this covenant, then it shall be lawful for the Messenger of Allah to shed their blood, capture their children and women and seize their wealth.” The Messenger of Allah then wrote a pledge to each tribe separately.
The man who represented the tribe of Bană ‘n-Nadir was Huyayy ibn Akhtab. When he returned to his home, his brothers Judayy ibn Akhtab and AbU Yasir ibn Akhtab asked: “What do you say?” He answered: “He is indeed the one whom we find described in the Torah, and of whom our learned men had informed us. Yet I shall continue to be his enemy, because prophethood has ceased to be in the progeny of Isaac and has instead been established in the line of Ishmael. Nor should we ever become followers of the descendants of lshmael.”
The man who represented the tribe of Qurayzah was Ka’b ibn Asad. A man called Mukhayriq represented the tribe of BanU Qaynuqa’. He was the wealthiest man among them, possessing much wealth and orchards. He said to his people: “If you know for certain that he is the Prophet sent by Allah, then let us believe in him. In this way, we would possess both scriptures.” But the tribe of Qaynuqa’ did not agree with him on the matter.
It is reported that the Messenger of Allah continued to pray with his Companions in the animal fold. He said one day to As’ad ibn Zurärah: “Go and buy this animal fold from its owners!” He thus went to purchase it from the two orphans, but they said: “Rather, we give it to the Messenger of Allah.” The Messenger of Allah objected saying: “No, only if you accept its price.” He bought it for ten dinars. There was a swamp of stagnant water in it which the Messenger of Allah ordered drained. Then the Messenger of Allah had baked mud bricks prepared, which he used to build it into a mosque. He dug the foundations and had stones carried from al-Harrah (at the outskirts of Medina). As the Muslims were carrying them, the Messenger of Allah came carrying a stone on his chest. Usayd ibn Huçlayr met him and said: “0 Messenger of Allah, give it to me that I may carry it for you!” “No”, he answered, “go and carry another one.”
In this way, they carried the stones which they used to build the foundations, until they reached ground level. The Prophet first used regular mud bricks, one over the other. He then used samzi, that is, bricks equalling one and a half bricks each. Finally, he used two alternate bricks at a time which fit into one another. Thus he raised up the walls to the height of a man. The width of the Mosque in the back was 100 cubits.
As the heat became intolerable, the people made a request of the Prophet, saying: “0 Messenger of Allah, would that
you raise up some shade over us!” He thus raised up columns

of wood as far as the vestibule, over which he laid palm branches. They were then able to stay in it. The people
again suggested: “0 Apostle of Allah, would that you build an actual roof!” “No”, he replied, “rather an awning made of branches like the booths of Moses. Matters are too urgent for all that.”
The Messenger of Allah then built his houses and those of his Companions around the mosque. He plotted a space for his Companions wherein they built their houses. Every one of them opened a door of his house into the mosque. He plotted a space for Harnzah and had the door of his house opened into the mosque. He plotted a similar space for ‘All ibn Abi Talib. They were all able to come out of their homes directly into the mosque. Gabriel, however, came down to him and said: “0 Muhammad, Allah corn-mands you to order everyone whose house opens out into the mosque to close that door. Let no one have a door which opens out into the mosque except you and ‘All. This is because whatever is made lawful for you in this matter, is also made lawful for ‘All.”
The Prophet’s Companions became angry because of this. Hamzah angrily complained: “I am his uncle, yet heorders that my door be closed, and leav~s open the door of my nephew who is younger than me.” The Prophet came to him and said: “0 uncle, be not dismayed because your door was closed, while ‘All’s door was left open. By Allah, it was not I who ordered that; rather Allah commanded that all your doors be closed but that ‘All’s door be left open.” Hamzah answered: “0 Apostle of Allah, I accept and willingly submit to Allah and His Apostle.”
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It is reported that when the Messenger of Allah built his houses Fătimah was with him; and that Abü Bakr asked for her hand in marriage, upon which the Messenger of Allah said to him, “Wait for the command of Allah, glorified and exalted be He.” Then ‘Umar asked for her hand, and the Prophet replied in a similar manner. It was asked of ‘All, “Why do you not ask for Fa~imah’s hand? “, he answered, “By Allah, I have nothing!” He was told, “The Messenger of Allah will not ask for anything.” He then came to the Prophet, but found himself shy to ask him and thus left. He came another time the next day, but again was too shy and left. Again he came a third day, and the Messenger of Allah said to him, “‘All, is there something you want?” “Yes, 0 Messenger of Allah”, he answered. The Messenger of Allah said: “Perhaps you come as a suitor?”, and ‘All replied, “Yes, 0 Messenger of Allah.” The Prophet then asked, “Do you have anything, ‘Mi?” “I have nothing”, ‘All replied, “save my armour.” Thus the Messenger of Allah married him for twelve and one-half awqiyyahs (that is, two hundred and fifty dirhams), for which ‘All sold his armour. Then the Messenger of Allah said to him, “Prepare a house so that Fătimah can move into it”, to which ‘All replied, “0 Messenger of Allah, there is no house here except a house of Hărithah ibn an-Nu’măn. And on the day the Commander of the Faithful consummated his marriage with Fatimah she was nine years of age. But the Messenger of Allah said, “By Allah, we are ashamed before Hărithah, for we have already taken almost all of his houses!” News of this reached Han-thah, and he came to the Messenger of Allah and said, “0 Messenger of Allah, I and my wealth belong to Allah and His Messenger, and by Allah there is nothing which I would like more than that you take it (the house), for what you take from me is then mOre dear than that which you leave.” The Messenger of Allah thus blessed him and sent Fatima]’

to ‘All in the house of Hărithah. And their bed was of the skin of a ram, the fleece of which they placed facing up under them.

It is reported that the Messenger of Allah used to pray toward Jerusalem during his stay in Mecca, and also during his Migration (to Medina) for a period of seven months. When he had passed seven months there, however, the Jews reproached him, saying, “You are our follower, praying toward our qiblah (direction of pray) and we precede you in prayer!”
The Messenger of Allah was greatly troubled by this, and wished that Allah would change his qiblah to the Ka’bah. He went out in the middle of the night and gazed at the horizons of heaven, awaiting the command of Allah. The next day he went to the Mosque of the BanU Sălim, in which the first commual Friday prayers in Medina had been held, and there he prayed the afternoon (zuhr) prayers with them, two rak’ahs toward Jerusalem and two toward Mecca. Thus was sent down: We have seen you turning your face to the heavens, and We shall surely give you a qiblah with which you shall be pleased [Qur. 2:144]. Then the Verse of Fighting (ăyatu ‘l-qitdl) was sent down to the Messenger of Allah permitting him to fight against the Quraysh, as He says:
Sanction is given to those who fight because they have been wronged, and Allah is well able to give them victory [Qur. 22:39], and to those who have been driven unjustly from their homes only because they say, “Our Lord is Allah”. . [Qur. 22:40].
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in Which He Himself Participated, and for Which He Sent Detachments. The Main Events of His Life Until He Departed This World, the Signs of His Prophethood Which Occurred During That Time, and Proofs of His Veracity and Apostleship.
Biographers of the Prophet and Qur’an commentators have reported that the number of the battles: which the Messenger of Allah himself led was twenty-six. As for the detachments which he sent out for battle but in which he himself did not take part, they were thirty-six. In nine of his battles, he himself took part in the fighting. These were:
Badr, Uhud, al-Khandaq (the Trench), the battle against the Jewish tribe of Banü Qurayzah, al-Mu~aliq, Khaybar, al-Fath (the Conquest of Mecca), Hunayn and the battle of at-Tă’if.
The first detachment which the Prophet dispatched, consisting of thirty horsemen, was led by Hamzah ibn ‘Abdi ‘1 -Mu4~alib. The men travelled until they reached the coast of the land of Juhaynah (a tribe), where they encountered AbU Jahl ibn Hishăm with one hundred and thirty horsemen

of the Associators. A man called Majdi ibn ‘Amr al-Juhani came between the two groups, which then separated without any outbreak of fighting.
The first `which the Messenger of Allah led took place in Safar, the second month of the year.2/623, twelve months after he arrived in Medina. He set out to attack the Quraysh and the tribe of BanU Damrah but re-turned without encountering the enemy, having reached al-Abwă’ (a mountain between Mecca and Medina). He remained in Medina the rest of Safar and half of Rabi’u ‘l-Awwal (that is, the following month). During this time, he dispatched ‘Ubaydah ibn al-Ilărith with sixty horsemen of the Immigrants; not even one of the Ansăr was among them. The first war standard which the Messenger of Allah raised was also in that battle. He also met the Associators in battle at a spring called Ahyă. They exchanged arrows, the Associators being led by Abü Sufyăn ibn Ijarb. The Messenger of Allah also undertook another raid during the next month of Rabi’u ‘l-Akhir. He set out seeking the men of Quraysh, going as far as Buwăt (a mountain range of Juhaynah a few dozen miles from Medina), but he encoun-tered no hostilities.
After this, the Prophet led an engagement known as Ghazwatu ‘l-’Ushayrah (a place between Mecca and Medina) at the valley of Yanbu’. He also sought the men of Quraysh, staying the rest of the month of Jumădă ‘l-Ulă and a few days of Jumădă ‘l-Akhirah. There he made a peace agree-ment with the tribe of BanU Mudlij and their allies of the tribe of Banü Damrah.
It is related on the authority of ‘Ammăr ibn Yasir who said: “I was with ‘All, as we were companions during the raid of al-’Ushayrah. ‘Mi said to me: ‘Would you like, 0 AbU Yaqzan, that we go and see the men of BanU Mudlij working in their orchards near a spring of water belonging to them?’


We went and observed them for a while until we were overcome by sleep. Then we went to a hut made of palm branches, in a barren spot, where we slept. We did not wake up until the Messenger of Allah nudged us with his foot. We sat up startled and covered with the soil of that barren place. Seeing ‘All thus, the Prophet called him, ‘0 Abü Turăb (man of the soil or dust)!’ He then asked, ‘Shall I tell you who is the most miserable of humankind?’ ‘Yes, 0 Apostle of Allah’, we said. He went on: ‘They are the Uiiaymar of ThamUd who slew the she-camel51, and he who shall smite you, 0 ‘All, here (and he placed his hand upon his head) until this (and he placed his hand upon his beard) shall be soaked with blood!’”
The Messenger of Allah returned from al-’Ushayrah to Medina, where he remained not more than ten nights before a man called Kurz ibn Jabir al-Fihrl led an assault on a suburb of Medina. The Messenger of Allah went out after him until he reached a valley called Safwän near Badr. This was the first battle of Badr. The bearer of the Prophet’s banner was ‘All ibn Abi Talib, and his representative in Medina was Zayd ibn al-Härithah. Kurz, however, escaped, and the Messenger of Allah returned to Medina. He remained at home for the months of Jumădă, Rajab and Sha’băn. During this period he diSa’d ibn Abi Waqqă~ with eight men, but they encountered no hostilities.
After that the Messenger of Allah dispatched ‘Abduliăh ibn Jahsh to a place called Nakhlah (on the road to Mecca), ordering him to remain there until he returned with news of the Quraysh. But he did not command him to fight, because it was the sacred month (that is, Rajab). He handed him a letter and told him: “Set out with your Companions until you have travelled a journey of two days; then open your letter and see what it says, and execute my command.” After having travelled for two days he opened the letter,

which said: “Continue on until you arrive at Nakhlah. Bring us back whatever news of the Quraysh may reach you.” ‘Abdullah exclaimed before his Companions, after having read the letter, “I hear and obey! Let any one of you desiring martyrdom set out with me.” The people accompanied him until they reached Nakhlah. A man called ‘Amr ibn al-Hadrami passed by them with al-klakam ibn Kaysan, and ‘Uthmăn and al-Mughirah — the two sons of ‘Abdullăh —carrying goods which they had bought in at-Ta’if: raisins and condiments. When the people saw them, Waqid ibn ‘Abdilah came forth and stood before them. He had pre-viously cut his hair (which was a sign of entering into, or being released from, the state of consecration). Thus ‘Amr and his Companions said to one another: “These men are here to perform the lesser pilgrimage; you have nothing to fear from them.”
The Companions of the Apostle of Allah consulted among themselves — it being the last day of Rajab — saying:
“If you kill them, you would have killed during a sacred month. Yet if you were to let them go, they would enter Mecca tonight and would be well protected against you.” They thus agreed to kill them. Waqid ibn ‘Abdilăh shot ‘Amr ibn al-Hadrami with an arrow and killed him. ‘Uth-man ibn ‘Abdillăh and al-Hakam ibn Kaysăn requested and obtained a pact of security. As for al-Mughirah, he escaped, and they were unable to capture him. ‘Abdullah ibn Ja1ish and his Companions brought the camels and the two captives to the Apostle of Allah. He said to them: “By Allah, I did not command you to engage in any fighting during the sacred month!” He then withheld the two captives and the camel loads, and did not touch them. The people themselves were filled with remorse. This i~ because they thought that they would perish with their transgression. The people of Quraysh also reproached the Muslims saying: “Muhammad has

violated the sanctity of the sacred month.” Allah, therefore, sent down the verse: They ask you concerning the sacred month, shall there be fighting in it?. . . [Qur. 2:217]. When this verse was revealed, the Messenger of Allah accepted the goods and the ransom of the two captives. The Muslims said: “We can never hope for the reward in the hereafter for this battle, but only for the material reward of the booty.” Thus Allah sent down to console them: Those who have accepted faith and have migrated. . . until He says: such are those who hope in Allah’s mercy Ii Qur. 2:
218]. This event took place two months before the Battle of Badr.

The Great Battle of Badr

The Battle of Badr took place as the Messenger of Allah learnt that AbU Sufyan ibn IIarb with a caravan of forty horsemen of the Quraysh carrying goods from Syria was returning to Mecca. The Messenger of Allah went out to meet them with three hundred and some men. The majority
of his Companions, however, went out on foot, having only one horse and eighty camels. It is reported that the horse belonged to al-Miqdad (a well-known Companion). Men took turns riding the few camels available. The Messenger
of Allah himself shared one camel with Marthad ibn Abi Marthad al-.Ghanawi.
This great battle took place in the month of Ramaçlăn 2/624. When the Prophet left Medina, Abü Sufyăn, having heard the news, directed the caravan to travel along the coast to Mecca to seek help from the people of Quraysh. About one thousand men from the various clans of Quraysh responded to his call and went out with him. They had with them two hundred homes. They were also accompanied by young maidens singing poems to the accompaniment of tambourines denigrating the Muslims. al-Akhnas ibn Shurayq

ath-Thaqafi who was an ally of the Quraysh, turned back along the way taking with him BanU Zuhrah. So the Quraysh were left with nine hundred and ninety fighters, among them al-’Abbas (the Prophet’s uncle), ‘AqIl (son of AbU Talib), and Nawfal ibn al-Harith ibn ‘Abdi ‘l-Muttalib. These, how-ever, went out under duress. The most honored elders of the Quraysh were al-’Abbăs ibn ‘Abdi ‘l-Muttalib, ‘Utbah ibn Rabi’ah, Tu’aymah ibn ‘Adiyy, Abu ‘l-Bakhtari ibn Hishăm, Umayyah ibn Khalaf, Uakim ibn ljizăm, an-Nadr ibn al-Harith ibn Kaladah, AbU Jahl ibn Hisham and Suhayl ibn ‘Amr.
When the Prophet reached Badr, a well so called after a man of the tribe of Ghifăr by that name, he learnt of the escape of the caravan and the coming of the army of Quraysh. He thus consulted with his Companions as to whether they should encounter them or turn back, and they all said, “We leave the decision to you. If you so wish, we shall confront the people!” He confronted the people of Quraysh at the well of Badr on the seventeenth of Ramadan. The Apostle raised a white standard which was carried by Mus’ab ibn ‘Umayr. His banner was entrusted to ‘All.
Allah strengthened the Muslims with five thousand angels. Moreover, He made the Muslims look many more than their actual number to the rejecters of faith, and diminished the number of the Associators in the eyes of the people of faith. This He did in order that they might nof lose heart. The Messenger of Allah took a handful of dust and threw it at them exclaiming: “Let these faces be disgraced!” There was not one among them but that he was preoccupied with rubbing his eyes.
Allah caused approximately seventy of the Associators to be slain and the same number to be captured. Among these were al-’Abbäs ibn ‘Abdi ‘l-Muttalib, ‘Aqll ibn Abi Talib and Nawfal ibn al-Härith, all of whom accepted Islam. Two others

‘Uqbah ibn Abi Mu’ayt and an-Na~lr ibn al-Ilărith, the Mess-enger of Allah had slain in a nearby spot called a~- Safra’. He said to al-’Abbäs, “Ransom yourself, your two nephews ‘Aqil and Nawfal, your ally ‘Utbah ibn ‘Amr and the man of the tribe of al-Hărith ibn Fihr, for you are a man of great wealth. al-’Abbäs answered, “I was a Muslim, but the people coerced me!” The Prophet answered: “Allah knows best your Islam; if it were true, He shall reward you for it. As for your mani-fest action, it was against us.” al-’Abbas retorted: “I have no wealth!” The Prophet asked, “Where is the wealth which you entrusted to Umm al-Fadl in Mecca, when no one was with you? You then said to her, ‘If I shall be slain on this journey, this wealth shall be given to my Sons al-Façll, ‘Abdullăh and Qutham.’” al-’Abbăs exclaimed with amaze-ment: “0 Apostle of Allah, I now know that you are indeed the Messenger of Allah! For this is something which no one else besides me and Umm al-Façll knew! Calculate then, 0 Apostle of Allah, the amount of wealth which falls to you as booty from me. I had with me twenty ounces (of precious metal).” The Messenger of Allah said: “May that which Allah has granted us through you be never exhausted!” al-‘Abbăs then ransomed himself with one hundred ounces and each of the others with forty.
‘All slew among the Associators in the Battle of Badr al-Walid ibn ‘Utbah ibn Rabi’ah, who was a brave warrior. He also killed al-’As ibn Sa’id ibn al-’As ibn Umayyah, the father of Sa’id ibn al-’As and Tu’aymah ibn ‘Adiyy ibn Nawfal, whom he pierced with a spear. As he did so, ‘All exclaimed: “By Allah, this man shall never contend with us concerning Allah after today!” ‘All also killed Nawfal ibn Khuwaylid, who before the hijrah had tied Abü Bakr and Tall~ah together with a rope and tortured them for a whole day. Nawfal was the paternal uncle of az-Zubayr ibn al-‘Awwăm (the well-known Companion and relative of the

Prophet). When the fighting abated, the Prophet rose and exclaimed: “Praise be to Allah Who answered my prayers concerning him.”
Jabir [ib‘Abdillah al-Ansărl, a notable Companion and supporter of ‘All and his descendants] related on the auth-ority of ‘All that he said: “I marvelled at the bravery of the people on the day of Badr. No sooner had I slain al-Walid ibn ‘Utbah then IIan~alah ibn Abi Sufyăn rushed at me. As he drew close to me, I struck him with my sword so that his eyes ran down on his face and he fell dead on the ground. The people who were with Hanzalah were also killed. They were Zam’ah ibn al-Aswad, al-Harith ibn Zam’ah, ‘Umayr ibn ‘Uthmăn, Ka’b ibn Taym, the uncle of Talliah ibn ‘Ubay-dillah, and ‘Uthmăn and Malik, who were the brothers of Tal~1ah. They had with them thirty-six men.”
Ilamzah ibn ‘Abdi ‘l-Muttalib killed Shaybah ibn Rabi’ah ibn ‘Abd Shams and al-Aswad ibn ‘Abd al-Aswad al-Makh-zümi. ‘Amr ibn al-Jamfzh killed Abü Jahl ibn Hishăni. He struck him with his sword on his leg and severed it. Then ‘Abdullăh ibn Mas’Ud came and slew him with his sword, and carried his head to the Apostle of Allah, saying: “I found him breathing his last, and I recognized him. I then placed my foot on his neck, and said: ‘Has Allah not now disgraced you, 0 enemy of Allah?’ He answered: ‘You little shepherd! You have now reached high status.’” Ibn Mas’Ud continued: “I then cut off his head and brought it to the Messenger of Allah and said: ‘This is th~ head of the enemy of Allah, Abü Jahl.’ “Also, ‘Amman ibn Yasir killed Umay-yah ibn Khalaf.
The Messenger of Allah ordered that those who were slain of the Quraysh be thrown in the well of Badr. He then stood over them and called out to them one by one by their names and the names of their fathers. He then exclaimed:
“We have indeed found what our Lord had promised us to

be true! Have you too found what your Lord had promised you to be true?” The Prophet then said to his Companions:
“They hear as you hear, but they have been prevented from uttering a response.”
Fourteen men among the Muslims were martyred in the Battle of Badr. Among them were ‘Ubaydah ibn al-Hărith ibn ‘Abdi ‘l-Mu~allb, DhU ‘sh-Shirnălayn ‘Anir ibn Nadlah, the ally of Banü Zuhrah, Mihja’ [ibn Salih] ~, ‘Umayr ibn Abi Waqa~ and Safwan ibn Abi ‘l-Bayçla’. All these were of the Immigrants; the rest were of the Ansăr.
The Messenger of Allah returned to Medina where he rested only for seven nights before he himself led a detach-ment against the tribe of Banfl Sulaym. When he arrived at one of their water springs called al-Kudr, he remained for three nights before returning to Medina. This mission met with no resistance.

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