BATTLE OF BANU ‘L-MUSTALIQ
The Messenger of Allah besieged them for twenty-five days until they agreed to abide by the judgment of Sa’d ibn Mu’ădh which was that their men be slain and their women and children be taken as slaves. He further decreed that their homes and lands be given to the Immigrants, and their wealth divided among the Muslims. The Prophet said to him:
“You have judged them according to Allah’s judgment, which issues from above, from the seven heavens.”
When the captives were brought, they were imprisoned in a house. Ten were brought out, whom the Commander of the Faithful beheaded. Another ten were brought out whom az-Zubayr beheaded. A man of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah said: “Would it not be better to kill one or two men at a time?”
The wound which Sa’d had suffered in his ann suddenly opened and the blood continued to gush out until he died. The Messenger of Allah took off his outer garment (as an expression of grief) and walked with his funeral without an outer garment. He then sent ‘Abdulläh ibn”AtIk to Khay-bar (another Jewish settlement) where he killed AbEt Răfi’ (Sallăm) ibn Abi ‘l-Iluqayq (one of the chiefs of the BanU Quray~ah).
The siege of the Trench was followed by the Battle of Banü ‘l-Mu~aliq of the tribe of Khuză’ah, whose chief was al-Hărith ibn Abi Dirär. This battle is also known as the Battle of al-Muraysl’ (named after a spring of water in the district of Qudayd on the coast between Medina and Mecca). The men of Banü ‘l-Mustaliq prepared to advance against the Messenger of Allah in Sha’bän of the fifth or sixth year of the Hijrah. It is reported that Juwayriyyah, daughter of al-Hărith and wife of the Prophet, said: “The Messenger of Allah came to us while we were at the spring of al-Muraysi’,
and I heard my father say, ‘There has come to us one whom we cannot withstand.’” She continued: “I saw on that day horses and arms beyond description. When I became a Muslim and the Messenger of Allah married me and we returned to Medina, I began to look at the Muslims, and they were not as I saw them before. I thus knew that it was dread which Allah had instilled in the hearts of the Associators (i.e., by making the Muslim fighters look more in number and of greater strength than they actually were).” Juwayriyyah went on: “I saw in a dream, three nights before the coming of the Prophet, that the moon came from Yathrib and fell in my lap, I did not wish to tell my dream to anyone, but when we were taken captive, I hoped that my dream would come true. It did, as the Messenger of Allah freed me and took me in marriage.”
In battle, the Messenger of Allah commanded his men to assault their opponents as a single man. Thus no man of the enemy was able to escape; ten were killed, and the rest captured. The war cry of the Muslims was, “0 mansür (victorious one), kill!” The Messenger of Allah captured men, women and children, and took cattle and sheep. When men knew that he had married Juwayriyyah, daughter of al-Ijărith, they said: “These are now marriage relatives of the Apostle of Allah.” They thus sent whatever captives they held to the Prophet. I know of no woman who was of greater blessing to her people than she.
During this battle ‘Abdullah ibn Ubayy said, using the words of the Qur’an: When we return to Medina, the honor-able shall drive out the lowly [Qur. 63: 8]. During that year many revelations were sent down, and in it the incident of ‘A’ishah occurred. ~
In the sixth year (A.H.) during the month of Rabi’u ‘I-Awwäl, the Messenger of Allah sent ‘Ukkăshalh ibn Mahsan with forty men to a place called al-Ghanirah (on the road to Mecca). Seeing them come so early, the inhabitants of the place fled. ‘Ukkăshah took two hundred camels which they had left behind as spoils and led them into Medina.
During that year also the Prophet sent Abfl ‘Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrăl~i to a place called Dhă ‘l-Qa~ah, with forty men. Abfl ‘Ubaydah raided the people, who fled into the mountains. One man was captured and became a Muslim.
In the same year, there was a detachment led by Zayd ibn al-Hărithah to a place called al-Jamtun (a piece of land belonging to the tribe of BanU Sulaym). In this raid, the Muslims took cattle and sheep as booty and captured some men. In Jumädă ‘l-Ulă of the same year, Zayd also led another raid against al - ‘Is tribe. In yet another raid which he led against the tribe of Banü Tha’labah, with twenty-five men, he captured twenty-five camels after the people were put to flight.
In the same year, ‘All ibn Abi Talib led a raid against a Jewish settlement called Fadak belonging to the people of ‘Abdullăh ibn Sa’d. This action was prompted by information which the Messenger of Allah had received concerning the plan of the people of Fadak to send armed men to aid the Jews of Khaybar.
Another Companion, ‘Abdu ‘r-Raljmăn ibn ‘Awf, was sent with a detachment in the same year against the people of a place called Dümatu ‘l-Jandal. This took place in the month of Sha’băn. The Messenger of Allah said to ‘Abdu ‘r-Rahmăn: “If they yield without fighting, marry the daughter of their king.” The people did in fact accept Islam, and ‘Abdu ‘r-Rahmăn married Tumădir, daughter of al-Asbagh, whose father was their king and chief.
al-Waqidi, the famous historian of the wars (maghăzi) of the Prophet, reported that in the same year the Messenger of Allah sent a detachment against the ‘Arniyyin, a tribe living near Medina. This was a reprisal for their killing the
Messenger of Allah’s shepherd. Both men and camels were captured, and twenty horsemen were brought leading camels as booty to the Prophet. He ordered that their hands and feet be severed and that their eyes be put out. They were thus left in al-harrah until they died. Jăbir ibn ‘Abdillah al-Ansări related that the Messenger of Allah invoked Allah against them saying: “0 Allah, make them blind, unable to find their way,” and it was as he prayed.
In that year also the goods of Abu ‘l-’As ibn ar-Rabi’ were captured. He had gone to Syria to trade, and had with him much merchandise belonging to the men of Quraysh. On his way back, he met a detachment belonging to the Messenger of Allah. The men seized his caravan, but he escaped. They brought the booty to the Messenger of Allah, who divided it among them. Abu ‘l-’A~, however, came to Medina and sought protection (jiwdr) of Zaynab, daughter of the Apostle of Allah. He requested that she intercede with the Prophet on his behalf to return his goods to him, for he carried much wealth which people had entrusted to him. The Messenger of Allah called the men and said: “This man is one of us, as you well know. If, therefore, you see fit that you return his wealth to him, it is best that you do so.” They gave back to him whatever they had taken.
Abu ‘l-’As then returned to Mecca and gave the people back their trusts. He then said: “By Allah, nothing prevented me from becoming a Muslim before I came to you except the fear that you may think that ~I had done so in order that I may run away with your wealth. But now, I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, and that Mt4iammad is His Servant and Apostle.”
The Treaty of~aI-Hudaybiyyah
In the same year, in the month of Dhtt ‘l-Qi’dah (7/629) the treaty of :~l -Hudaybiyyah. was concluded between the Prophet and the people of Quraysh. The Prophet set out with a large company of his Companions intending to perform the
‘umrah, or lesser pilgrimage. He led before him seventy large animals (camels and cattle) for sacrifice. News of this reached the Associators of Quraysh, who sent a group of horsemen to prevent him from the Sacred House of worship (i.e., the Ka’bah). The Prophet had thought that they would not tight with him, because he had set out during a sacred month.
The story of Suhayl ibn ‘Amr and his son AbU Jandal and the way in which the Apostle of Allah dealt with them, and which caused the man who claimed to have never doubted Islam except on that day to cast suspicion on the Prophet, is well-known.58 A man called Burayd ibn Warqa’ came to the men of Quraysh and said: “0 people of Quraysh, do not be troubled, for he has come not with the intention of fighting with you. Rather, he came intending to make pilgrimage to the Sacred House of Allah.” They answered: “By Allah, we shall not listen to your advice! Nor will the Arabs have cause to talk among themselves about him having entered Mecca with ease! We shall not consent to anything except that he turn back and leave us,” They then sent Bakr ibn Hafs and Khälid ibn al-Walld, who prevented the animals to be sacrificed from reaching their destination.
The Prophet then sent ‘Uthmăn ibn ‘Affăn (the third capliph) to ask permission of the Quraysh to enter Mecca as a pilgrim to perform the ‘umrah. But the people of Quraysh detained him and would not let him go. The Messenger of Allah thought that they had killed him. He thus said to his
Companions: “Would you give me allegiance (bay ‘ah) of support even till death?” They agreed and pledged their support under the Tree [see Qur. 48:18], and affirmed that they would never desert him.
The Meccans then sent Suhayl ibn ‘Amr to the Prophet who addressed him saying: “0 Abu ‘l-Qassim, Mecca is surely
our sacred place (haram) and a source of honor for us. The Arab (tribes) have already heard that you have come to us.
- If you were to enter Mecca by force, they would consider us an easy prey, and we would be pillaged. We, therefore, remind you of your blood relations with us. Mecca is your home (literally ‘egg’) which hatched you.” “What do you wish?” the Prophet asked. Suhayl replied: “I wish to estab-lish in writing a truce between you and me, that I vacate Mecca for you this time next year. Then you may enter it without fear or trouble. Nor would you need to have any arms except that of the horseman. Your swords shall remain in their sheaths and your arrows in their quivers.” The Mess-enger of Allah called ‘All ibn Abi Talib, who took a piece of red skin, and placing it on his lap, wrote: “In the name of Allah, the All-merciful, the Compassionate.” Suhayl ibn
‘Amr retorted: “This is a document between you and us,
0 Muhammad. Open it, therefore, with words known to us. Write instead, ‘In your name 0 Allah.’” The Prophet said to ‘All, “Write ‘In your name 0 Allah’, and erase what you have written.” ‘All answered: “Were it not an act of obedience to you, 0 Apostle of Allah, I would not erase it.” The Prophet said: “Write ‘This is what Muhammad, the Apostle of Allah has agreed upon with Suhayl ibn ‘Amr.’” Suhayl objected: “Were I to accept this phrase in our docu-ment, I would have professed your claim to prophethood. Erase this name, therefore, and write instead, ‘Muhammad ibn ‘Abdjllăh.’” ‘Ali said to him: “By Allah, he is indeed the Messenger of Allah, and that in spite of your disdain!” The Prophet repeated: “Erase it, 0 ‘Mi.” ‘All answered:
“0 Apostle of Allah, my hand cannot erase your name from prophethood.” “Then put my hand over it”, the Prophet ordered. The Messengerof Allah then erased it with his own hand, and said to ‘All: “You too shall be called upon to do the same, and you shall consent, however unwillingly.”
He thus wrote: “In your name 0 Allah — This is what Muhammad ibn ‘Abdillăh ibn ‘Abdi ‘l-Muttalib and those who are with him of the Muslims have agreed upon with Suhayl ibn ‘Amr and those who are with him of the people of Mecca — that war shall cease, nor will there be any acts of deception, infiltration, or fighting. Furthermore, no one shall be coerced in his faith, and (Muslims) in Mecca shall be able to worship Allah openly. M4iammad shall sacrifice the animals (intended for the Ka’bah) in the place where he now is. In return, Mecca shall be vacated for him for three days, when he shall enter it only with the arms of the horse-men. All the people of Quraysh shall leave Mecca, and only one man shall be left behind with Mul.mmmad and his Companions. It is further agreed that, as for any person of the people of Quraysh who might come to Muhammad (after becoming a Muslim), Muhammad shall turn him over to them. But as for any man of the Muslims who may go to Mecca, the people of Quraysh shall not be obliged to turn him over to Muhammad.” The Messenger said addressing Suhayl: “If a man, after hearing my words, returns to you, I have no need of such a man. As well, the Quraysh shall not lend anyone support against Muhammad with men or arms”, and so forth.
Then AbU Jandal came to the Prophet and sat beside him. His father Suhayl demanded, “Turn him over to me!” The Muslims replied: “We shall not give him back to you!” The Prophet got up, and taking AbU Jandal by the hand, exclaimed: “0 Allah, if you know that Abü Jandal is sin-cere in his faith, then provide for him a way of release and escape!” He then turned to the people and said: “There is no danger for him; he is only returning to his father and mother. I do wish to fulfill the conditions of the people of Quraysh.”
The Messenger of Allah then returned to Medina. On the way, Allah sent down to him the sürah entitled al-Fath (the Conquest) which begins: We have surely bestowed up-on you manifest victory.. . [see Qur. 481. The sixth Lmăm as- Sadiq commented: “By the time this period (that is, of the Prophet’s migration before the final conquest of Mecca) had come to an end, Islam had all but gained complete con-trol over the inhabitants of Mecca.”
After the return of the Messenger of Allah to Medina, AbU Basir ‘Utbah ibn Asid ibn Jăriyah ath-Thaqafi (a man of the tribe of Thaqif captured by the Quraysh), escaped from the. Associators. al-Akhnas ibn Shurayq (a chief of the Quraysh) sent two men after him. AbU Basir killed one of the two men, and came to the Messenger of Allah as an Immigrant Muslim. Seeing him, the Prophet exclaimed, “A kindler (mis ‘ar) of war! Would that he had another man to give him support.” He then said to the man: “Your task now is to overpower your companion (that is, the other man sent after him). Then go wherever you wish.” Abii Basir left with five men who had come with him as Muslims. They settled in a coastal spot on the caravan route of the Quraysh, between al- ‘Is and DhU ‘l-Marwah in the land of Juhaynah on the way to Ghirăt. Likewise, Abfl Jandal ibn Suhayl ibn ‘Amr escaped with seventy horsemen who had accepted Islam. They joined AbU Basir, who already had a large company of men of the Ghifăr, Aslam and Juhaynah tribes. Altogether they were three hundred fighters, all Mus-lims. Thus, no caravan of the Quraysh passed by them but they captured it and killed its owners. Finally, the people of Quraysh sent Abü Sufyän ibn Harb to the Messenger of Allah beseeching him to send to AbU Ba~ir, AbU Jandal and their men to come to him. They conceded further, “Anyone who comes to you from us, you may retain without restriction.” Thus, those who had counselled the Messenger of Allah to protect Aba Jandal against his father,
BATTLE OF KHAYBAR
realized that obeying the Apostle of Allah was better for them than whatever they might have liked or disliked.
When Abu ‘l-’As ibn Rabi’ with some men of Quraysh were returning from Syria, they passed by Abü Basir and AbU Jandal with their companions. They captured them and seized their goods, but did not kill anyone of them, because Abu ‘l-’As was the son-in-law of the Messenger of Allah. They released Abu ‘l-’As who came to his wife in Medifla, for he had previously allowed her to go to Medina to be with the Messenger of Allah. Abu ‘l-’As was the son of the sister of Khadijah bint Khuwaylid.
In Dhü ‘l-Hijjah of 8/630 the Battle of Khaybar took place. According to al-Waqidi, this battle took place at the beginning of the 7th year of the Hijrah.59 There were at the time of the settlement of Khaybar (near Medina) fourteen thousand Jews, living in well fortified stongholds. The Messenger of Allah besieged them for twenty some days, and began to break down their fortifications one by one. The strongest of these and most populated with fighters was the stronghold called a1-Qumu~.
First AbU Bakr took the banner of the ImmigrantS to lead them in battle, but he soon returned defeated. The next day ‘Umar ibn al-Khat.~ăb carried it, but he too suffered defeat. Thus he began to accuse men of cowardice, as well as being himself similarly charged. This angered the Apostle of Allah. At last he said: “I shall give the banner tomO~ow to one who attacks (karrdr), and does not retreat. He is one who loves Allah and His Apostle, and whom Allah and HIS Apostle love. He shall not return until Allah opens (KhaYbar) at his hands.” The people of Quraysh wondered who such a man could be. “As for ‘All”, they said to one another, “you need not think of him, because he is sore-eyed, unable
to see even the ground under his feet.” But when ‘All heard what the Apostle of Allah said, he exclaimed: “0 Allah, there is no one who can give what you withhold, nor is there anyone who can withhold what you give!”
Next morning people gathered around the Messenger of Allah. Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqă~ reported: “I sat facing him; I knelt, then stood up. He turned to me and said: ‘Call ‘All fo me.’ Men cried out all around: ‘He is so sore-eyed that he is unable to see the ground under his feet!’ The Prophet replied: ‘Send someone to bring him here.’ He was brought, and the Prophet laid his head on his knee and spat in his eyes. Immediately they became as clear as Yemenite glass beads.”
The Prophet then gave ‘AU the banner and prayed for him. ‘All went out running. Sa’d said: “By Allah, even before I had reached the last men in the line of fighters, ‘All had already entered the stronghold.” Jăbir ibn ‘Abdillăh al-Ansări added: “He did not even allow us enough time to put on the arms.” Sa’d cried out: “0 Abu ‘l-Uasan, stop and wait awhile until the men are able to join you! “But ‘All went on until he fixed the banner near the stronghold. A man called Mar~iab came out to meet him in single combat. He came out well-armed and surrounded by other Jewish fighters. ‘All met him and they fought until ‘All struck him with his ~word and cut off his leg. He fell down, and ‘All with the other• Muslims rushed at him, but he and his Companions fled quickly.
Abăn related on the authority of Zurărah that (the fifth Imăm) al-B aqir said: “‘All reached the gate of the stronghold, which was shut in his face. He pulled it off its hinges and used it as a shield. He then carried it on his back and broke into the fortification with great force. The Muslims then attacked as well, while the gate was still on his back.” The Imăm continued: “‘All suffered greater hardship from the men who were with him than from carry-ing the gate itself. He finally threw the gate away from him, while a cryer went out to announce to the Messenger of Allah that ‘All had entered the fortification. The Messenger of Allah hastened to the spot and ‘All went out to meet him. The Prophet said: ‘I have learnt of your welcome news and your worthy deeds. Allah is well pleased with you, and I too am pleased with you.’ ‘All wept, and the Prophet asked: ‘What makes you weep?’ ‘I weep for joy’ ‘All answered, ‘because Allah and His Messenger are well pleased me.’”
It is reported that among the captives whom ‘All took was ~afiyyah daughter of Ijuyayy. He called Bilăl and gave her to him saying: “Do not deliver her to anyone except the Apostle of Allah, so that he may decide what to do with her.” Bilăl took her and passed by the dead (of her people) on his way to the Messenger of Allah. She nearly died of weeping for them. The Prophet said to him, “Has mercy been removed from your heart, 0 Bilăl?” The Prophet then chose ~afiyyah for himself; he freed her and married her.
It is reported that after the Messenger of Allah had con-cluded the affair of Khaybar, he raised a banner of war and demanded; “Who will rise and take this, and be worthy of it?” He did this because he wished to send an army under it to the gardens of Fadak. az-Zubayr stood up and said:
“I would.” The Prophet answered, “Leave it alone.” Sa’d then stood up, and the Prophet likewise told him to leave it aloi~e. The Prophet then said: “0 ‘All, rise up and take this standard!” He took it to Fadak,with whose people he made a treaty that he would spare their lives in return for the gardens. Thus the gardens of Fadak belonged exclusively to the Messenger of Allah.
Gabriel then came to him and said: “Allah commands you to give your next of kin their due.” He asked: “0 Gabriel, who are my next of kin, and what is their due?”
He answered: “It is Fătimah; give her, therefore, the gardens of Fadak and whatever in them belongs to Allah and to His Apostle.” The Messenger of Allah thus called Fätimah and wrote a document to that effect, which she brought to AbU Bakr after her father’s death. She presented it saying: “This is the will of the Messenger of Allah to me and my two sons.”
It is further reported that when the Messenger of Allah had conquered Khaybar, news came of the return of Ia’ far ibn Abi Tälib and his Companions from Abyssinia to Medina. The Prophet exclaimed: “I do not know with which of the two I should be more joyful, whether with the conquest of Khaybar or the coming of Ia’ far!” Sufyăn ath-Thawri (a well-known traditionist and theologian of the second cen-tury) reported on the authority of Jăbir that when Ja’far returned from Abyssinia, the Messenger of Allah went out to meet him. When Ja’far ibn Abi Tälib saw the Apostle of Allah, he advanced toward him with short modest steps, as an expression of reverence. The Messenger of Allah kissed him on the forehead. Zurărah ibn A’yan (a disciple of the fifth and sixth Imăms) reported on the authority of the former that when the Messenger of Allah received Ja’far, he kissed him on the eyes.
It is reported that before the Messenger of Allah set out for Khaybar, he sent ‘Amr ibn Umayyah acl-l?amii to an-Najăshi (Negus), ruler of Abyssinia to bring back Ja’far and his Companions. ‘Ainr, however, invited an-Najăshi to Islam, and he in fact became Muslim. ‘Amr then brought back Ja’far and his Companions. an-Najăshi provisioned Ia’ far and his Companions well, and ordered that each be given a suit of clothes. He had them transported on board two ships.
The Messenger of Allah then sent, as related on the auth-ority of az-Zuhri, ‘Abdullăh ibn Rawăhah (a well-known Companion who was martyred in the Battle of Mu’ tah)
with thirty horsemen, among whom was ‘Abdullah ibn Ai~is,
ENGAGEMENT OF ‘UMRATU ‘L-QADA’
to Yasir ibn Rizăm, the Jew. The Prophet did so after learn-ing that Yasir had gathered the men of the tribe of Ghatafăn to attack the Muslims with them. The Muslim horsemen came to him and said: “The Messenger of Allah sent us to you wishing to appoint you as the Governor of Khaybar.”
They continued to plead with him until he gave in and followed them with thirty of his men, so that each one of them would accompany one of the Muslims. After they had gone only six miles, Yasir regretted his decision. He thus turned to snatch ‘Abdullah ibn Anis’s sword, but ‘Abdullăh was on the alert. He spurred on his camel and continued to drive on the men before him until he caught up with Yasir. He then struck him with his sword on the leg, cutting it off. Yasir rushed at him with a thick staff of hard wood having a twisted handle like that of a sceptre.
He struck ‘Abdullah with it and split open his skull. Seeing this, every man of the Muslims rushed at his Jewish com-panion and killed him. Only one of the Jews was able to escape. No one of the Muslims was killed. When they came to the Messenger of Allah, he spat in ‘Abdullăh’s wound, which then never caused him any pain until he died.
The Prophet then sent a man named Ghälib ibn ‘Abdillăh al-Kalbi (with a detachment) on a raid to the land of the tribe of BanU Murrah. He fought valiantly, but was finally taken captive. The Prophet also sent ‘Uyaynah ibn ~li~n al-Badri on a similar raid to the land of the tribe of BanU
‘Anbar. He too killed some men and was captured.
The Engagement of 'Umratu '1- Qada
Then came the engagement of ‘umratu ‘l-qa~iă’ (the lesser pilgrimage performed in compensation for the one missed the year before) in 7 A. H. The Messenger of Allah and those ,who had witnessed the engagement of Iuday-biyyah with him set out for the lesser pilgrimage. When, however, the people of Quraysh heard of this, they vacated
the city hastily and in disarray. He thus entered Mecca and circumambulated the Ka’bah on his camel. He held in his hand a stick with which he touched the Black Stone.
‘Abdullăh ibn Rawăliah led his camel by its rope reciting:
Move away, 0 children of the rejecters of faith, and hinder not Allah ‘s way.
Move away, for all goodness is in His Apostle.
The All-merciful has declared in His Revelation,