CHAPTER SEVEN
ON OBEYING THE PARENTS AND TIGHTENING THE BONDS OF KIN

131. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said:


(358 )

[Abu` Ja'far, peace be on him, related to me. He said:] "The minimum disobedience (to parents) is the (word) uf (ugh). And if Allah knew that there was something easier than uf, He would forbid it."
He, the Exalted, said: And do not say to them uf! If there was a word less than the word uf, Allah would forbid it, just as the Imam said.
132. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Abu` Ja'far, peace be on him, related to me. He said: Abu` 'Abd Allah, peace be on him, said:] "Tightening the bonds of kin and good manners increase faith."
Definitely, good manners and tightening the bonds of kin are two proofs of man's faith in Allah and his relationship with Him.
133. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "He who guarantees one (thing) to me, I will guarantee four (things) to him: He should tighten the bonds of kin, so his family loves him; he is given generously; his fixed term is increased; and Allah will make him enter the Garden which He has promised."
Surely, tightening the bonds of kin is the best deed in Islam, for it brings about correlation, unity, and solidarity of society.
134. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Mohammed b. 'Ali, peace be on him, related to me. He said:] "Tightening the bonds of kin and good neighborhood increase properties."
Among the good deeds which Islam has adopted is kindness to blood relations and neighbors. For such a deed unifies the Muslims, spreads love and affection among them.
135. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: ['Ali b. Abu` Ta`lib said: I heard Allah's Messenger say:] "Verily, I fear for you that you will disdain the religion, sell your government, cut the bonds of kin, use the Qur'a`n as pipes, and that you give precedence to one of you, while he is not the most meritorious of you in religion."
These matters against which the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, warned the Muslims bring about the destruction of society and make it deviate from the ideals which Islam has adopted.


(359 )

CHAPTER EIGHT
ON WARNING AGAINST CHEATING, BACKBITING, AND TATTLING

136. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "He who cheats a Muslim or harms him or tries to deceive him does not belong to us."
Cheating a Muslim or harming him or trying to deceive him is never an Islamic act, for such an action spreads hatred and mistrust among the Muslims.
137. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "Beware of oppression, for it destroys your hearts."
Islam has fought against oppression. Authentic traditions have been transmitted from the Ima`ms of guidance, peace be on him, concerning warning against oppression, and that Allah, the Most High, is in the watch-tower against the oppressive; He will destroy their houses and severely punish them.
138. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [My father al-Husayn b. 'Ali, peace be on him, related to me. He said: the Commander of the faithful, the blessings of Allah be on him, addressed us. He said:] "A severe time will come upon the people; therein the rich will seize their possessions with their own teeth (by way of miserliness) although they have not been commanded to do so. Allah, the Most High, says: Do not forget generosity among yourselves. During this time the wicked will rise up while the virtuous will remain low; purchases will be made from the helpless although Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, has prohibited purchasing from the helpless."
139. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: ['Ali b. al-Husayn, peace be on him, said:] "He who refrains from (defaming) the honor of men, Allah will release him from his stumble on the Day of Resurrection."


(360 )

One of the precepts of Islam is that one should refrain from (defaming) the honor of men and not to mention it with evil, that he may keep the unity of the Muslims.
140. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: ['Ali b. al-Husayn, peace be on him, said:] "Beware of backbiting, for it is the food of the inhabitants of the Fire."
'Ali b. al-Husayn, the master of the Allah-fearing, peace be on him, has presented the prohibition of backbiting, which is the most atrocious of all forbidden things, for it leads to spreading offenses and obscene words among the Muslims.
141. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "Surely, Allah detests him who does not receive the person who comes in to him."
Among the Islamic good manners is that you should honor those who visit you in your house, not turn away from them, and accomplish their needs, especially the needs of those who are poor and needy.

CHAPTER NINE
THE EXCELLENCE OF INVASION AND JIHAD

142. Through his chain of authority, he, peace be on him, said: ['Ali b. al-Husayn, the blessings of Allah be on him, said: While the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, was addressing the people, a young man stood up before him and said:] "O Commander of the faithful, tell me about the excellence of the invasion in the path of Allah." He, peace be on him, answered: "I was riding behind Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, on his she-camel al-'Adba`' when we came beck from the Campaign of Dha`t al-Sala`sil. I asked him about what you have asked me about, and he answered: "Surely, if the invaders intend to make an invasion, Allah writes for them freedom from the Fire, and if they prepare themselves, Allah vies (in glory) with the angels through them, etc.'"


(361 )

The tradition is long; the greatest Messengers, may Allah bless him and his family, has presented therein the excellence of invasion and jiha`d in the path of Allah, which is one of the gates to the Garden, and which Allah has opened for his special friends, as it was said by the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him.

CHAPTER TEN
MISCELLANEOUS TRADITIONS

143. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] Allah, the Most High, says: "O son of A@dam, do you not treat Me with justice? I show love toward you through favors and you show hatred toward Me through the acts of disobedience. My good descends to you, and your evil ascends to Me. A noble angel always brings Me an ugly deed from you on every day and night.
"O son of Adam, if you hear your description from other than you, and you do not know who the describer is, you will quickly detest him."
This Holy Tradition summons men to do good deeds and warns them against evil deeds.
144. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, said: Allah, the Great and Almighty, says:] "O son of A@dam, do not let the sins of men divert you from your own sin, nor (let) the favors of men divert you from those of Allah toward you. Do not drive men to despair of Allah's favor, while you hope them for your own soul."
This tradition orders man not to let the sins of men turn him away from his own sins, for every person is responsible for his own sins before Allah, the Exalted. In addition, it orders him not to let the favors which Allah bestow upon his servants divert him from His favors toward him.
145. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "I fear for my community from three (things): error after knowledge, misleading discords, the lust of stomach and genital parts."


(362 )

Certainly these three temptations turns man away from Allah, the Exalted, and throws him into dreadful evil.
146. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, said concerning the interpretation of these words of Him, the Most High: (Remember) the day when We will call every people with their Imam:] "He (Allah) will call every people with the Ima`m of their time, the Book of their Lord, and the Sunna (practices and sayings) of their Prophet."
This tradition gives an account of mustering men on the Day of Resurrection. It indicates that every people will be mustered along with their Ima`m (leader), the Book of their Lord, and the Sunna of their Lord. If they obeyed them and put them into practice, they would be successful and be safe from the severe punishment of Allah, and if they opposed them, they would be unsuccessful.
147. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "Allah will reckon every creature except him who associates a partner with Him, for He will not reckon him and order him (to be taken) to the Fire."
148. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "Circumcise your boys on the seventh day, for it is the purest and quickest (act) in making flesh grow."
An example of wonderful Islamic legislation is that it summons the Muslims to circumcise male babies on the seventh day of their birth, for the circumcision in this age recovers quickly and the male baby does not suffer severe pain. If the baby exceeds this age, especially when its age exceeds three or four years, it faces difficulty and severe pain in circumcising.
149. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "The wronged are neither praiseworthy nor rewarded."
As for the wronged, if they are ignorant, they do not deserve praise and reward, for they neglect their dealings; and if they are knowledgeable and adopt riches, then they are worthy of blame and dispraise.


(363 )

150. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "Do favor for those who are worthy of it and those who are not worthy of it. If you find those who are worthy of it, then they deserve it; and if you do not find those who are worthy of it, then you are among those who are entitled to it."
In this tradition there is a creative summons to doing favor and kindness to all men. This is one of good Islamic teachings standing on favor and kindness.
151. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "The head of reason after religion is showing love toward men and doing favor for both the righteous and the sinful." Surely, showing love for men and making favor for them is a proof of ripe mind, sound reason, and insight.
152. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "Verily, your mouths are ways to your Lord, so clean them."
This tradition summons the Muslims to clean their mouths through refraining from obscene and abominable words, saying the truth, polite words, and others.
153. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "He who fasts on Friday with endurance and fore-thought is given the reward of ten honorable, brilliant days which the days of the world do not resemble."
This tradition awakens one's desire for fasting on Friday, which is the most honorable of the days of the week, for there is abundant repayment and great reward in fasting on it.
154. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "Prefer the Garden to the Fire and do not invalidate your deeds, so you will be thrown into the Fire, bowing (your heads) and immortal therein."


( 364 )

The Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, summons (people) to gain Paradise through sincere deeds and not to invalidate their deeds through hypocrisy, and others. In addition, he, may Allah bless him and his family, warns them against the Fire, may Allah protect us from it.
155. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "There is no retiring into mosque for devotion (i'tikaf) except along with fasting."
As for prayer in seclusion (i'tikaf), it stands on fasting, and it should be in one of the mosques of Allah. As for fasting for i'tika`f, it should be for three days; and the one who performs i'tika`f has no right to leave the mosque except after the three days.
156. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "If the servant sees the moment of his death and its speed, he will hate hope and seeking the world."
If man reflects on his fate and carefully considers his condition in the grave and his quick departure from this world, then he will detest hope and hate the world.
157. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: ['Ali b. Abu` Ta`lib related to me, saying:] "He who subjects himself to accusation and entering what brings about losing his dignity, certainly empowers mistrust over himself, and it is he who brings about that against himself."
158. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: ['Ali b. Abu` Ta`lib said:] "He who obeys a creature and disobeys the Creator has no religion."
Surely, he who obeys a creature through disobeying the Creator has no religion and no relationship with Allah, the Most High.
159. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Al-Husayn b. 'Ali, peace be on him, related to me, saying:] "Verily, the deeds of this community are brought before Allah, the Great and Almighty, every morning."


(365 )

Definitely, the deeds of the Muslims are brought before Allah, the Exalted, every day, whether they are good or evil. So blessed is he who does good deeds and fears his Lord!
160. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [My father 'Ali b. Abu` Ta`lib related to me concerning these words of Him, the Exalted: And certainly she made for him, and he would have made for her, were it not that he had seen the manifest evidence of his Lord, saying:] "The wife of al-'Az´~z (the Chief of Egypt) went to an idol and covered the idol, and then she said: 'It can see us!' So Yousif asked her: 'What is this?' 'I feel shame of the idol when it sees us!' she replied. So he asked her: 'Do you feel shame of the idol which cannot hear; nor can it see; nor can it benefit; nor can it harm? Why do you not feel shame of Him who has created things and has knowledge of them?' So that is His words, the Exalted: the manifest evidence of his Lord."
161. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [When 'Ali b. Abu` Ta`lib, peace be on him, saw a sick person who got well, he said:] "Purity from sins congratulates you!"
Many traditions have been reported from the Ima`ms of guidance, peace be on them; the traditions indicate that illness purifies sick person from the sins which he had committed, and that it increases his good deeds.
162. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [My father 'Ali b. Abu` Ta`lib, peace be on him, related to me, saying:] "We have taken three (things) from three (persons): Steadfastness from Ayyu`b (Job), gratitude from Nu`h (Noah), and envy from the children of Ya'qu`b (Jacob)."
163. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Mohammed b. 'Ali b. al-Husayn, peace be on them, was asked:] "Why was the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, orphaned?" He, peace be on him, replied: "Lest no creature should have a right against him."
Many traditions have justified the orphanage of the Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family. Yet there is another justification as follows: This Orphan (i.e. the Prophet) could change the course of


(366 )

the world's history, save man from the fables and customs of those pagans who loved before Islam, established on earth a state which raised the torch of monotheism, brightened the regions of the world through the truth and justice.
With this matter we will end our talk about the Musnad and Sah´~fa of Ima`m al-Rida`, peace be on him. It is worth mentioning that I (i.e. the author) have dropped some traditions mentioned in these two books of the Ima`m, for I think that they are fabricated and do not belong to the traditions of the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt), peace be on them. Perhaps, for this reason some religious scholars have not ascribed this book (Sah´fa) to Ima`m al-Rida`, peace be on him, and not regarded it as evidence for some religious precepts.

Al-Fiqh al-Radawi

The book al-Fiqh al-Radawi (al-Rida's Jurisprudence) has also been attributed to Imam al-Rida, peace be on him, and it was not known by the early Imami scholars; rather it appeared afterwards, and especially in the time of al-Majjlisi, the virtuous, who said: "I was told about the book Fiqh al-Rida, peace be on him, by al-Sayyid, the virtuous traditionalist, the ruler-judge Husayn, may Allah be Gracious to his soil, after returning to Asfahan. He said to me: 'It happened that during the time when I was neighboring the Sacred House of Allah, a group of the residents of Qum visited me while performing their hajj and they had with them an old book the date of its writing agreed with the date during which al-Rida`, the blessings of Allah be upon him, was alive.'" Al-Majjlisi continues to say: "I heard my father, may Allah have mercy on him, saying that it was written in the handwriting of al-Rida`, the blessings of Allah be upon him, and a large group of the dignitaries testified to the same.' Al-Sayyid (Husayn) said: 'From these contexts, I have come to know that the book was written by the Ima`m, peace be on him; so I took the book, wrote it and corrected it.' Hence my father, may Allah hallow his soul, took this book from al-Sayyid, copied it and corrected it. Most its sentences agree with what al-Sadu`q, may Allah have mercy on him, has mentioned in his book Man la Yahdarahu al-Faq´h with out any chain of authorities, and what


( 367 )

his father has mentioned in his letter to him. Our companions have mentioned many precepts in the book without mentioning their chain of authorities."
A group of the eminent figures of the Ima`mi jurisprudenceżlike al-Fa`dil al-Ka`sha`ni, the Author of al-Riya`d, al-Muhaddith al-Bahra`ni, and othersżtestified the book and depended on it.
Yet another group of the great religious scholars has discussed the book and denied it. He who carefully considers the book concludes the following criticisms:
Firstly, if this book belonged to Ima`m al-Rida`, it would not be unknown for numerous centuries; the early Ima`mi scholars and traditionalists would come to know of it, for they took great care of all traditions transmitted from the Ima`ms of guidance, peace be on them; yet, none of them said even a word concerning it.
Secondly, Shaykh al-Sadu`q, who has recorded all traditions reported from Ima`m al-Rida`, peace be on him, has not mentioned the book in his book 'Uyun Akhbar al-Rida; nor has he mentioned it in his other books.
Lastly, the book contains some traditions which contradict the Sh´~'ite beliefs such as extremism which the pure Ima`ms disproved and regarded as infidels those who believe in it. For example, it has been mentioned in the book, Chapter on Istiqba`l al-Qibla fi al-Sala`t: "And place one of the Ima`ms before your eyes." This is grievous extremism, for it is incumbent upon every worshipper to direct his sentiments and feelings towards Allah, the Creator of the universe and Giver of life.
These are some criticisms of the book, and they indicate that it does not belong to Imam al-Rida, peace be on him. It is worth mentioning that the book was published by the World Conference on Imam al-Rida, peace be on him, in the Holy City of Meshhad, that it was checked by the Al al-Bayt Foundation for Renewing Legacy in Qum, may Allah increase it in honor, and that its introduction was written by the great researcher Shaykh Jawa`d al-Sharista`ni, who mentioned the proofs of those who testified the book and of those who denied it.