H 757, Ch. 64, h 1
Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus and Ali ibn Muhammad from Sahl ibn Ziyad, abu Sa‘id from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus from ibn Muskan from abu Basir who has said that he asked abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) about the following words of Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High. "Believers, obey God, His Messenger, and your leaders (who possess Divine authority). . . ." (4:59) The Imam (a.s.) said, "This was sent from heavens about Ali ibn abu talib al-Hassan and al-Husayn (a.s.)." I then said, "People say, "Why did He not specify Ali and his family by their names in the book of Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High?’" The Imam (a.s.) said, "Say to them, ‘The command for prayer came to the Messenger of Allah but He has not specified (the number of the Rak‘ats) for them three nor four. It, in fact, was the Messenger of Allah who explained to them this matter. The command for Zakat (a form of income tax) came to the Messenger of Allah and there was no specific taxable number such as one Dirham on every forty Dirham. It was the Messenger of Allah who explained it for them. The command for Hajj came to the Messenger of Allah. It did not say walk senven times around the Ka‘ba . It was the Messenger of Allah who explained it for them. The verse about obedience came "Believers, obey God, His Messenger, and your leaders (who possess Divine authority). . . ." (4:59) It came to declare that Ali, al-Hassan and al-Husayn (a.s.) were the leards who possessed Divine authority. The Messenger of Allah then said about Ali (a.s.), "On whoever I have Divine Authority, then Ali (a.s.) has Divne Authority over him also." He also has said, "I enjoin you to follow the book of Allah and my family because have prayed to Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High not to separate these two from eachother until He will make them arrive al-Kawthar (at the pool of Paradise) to meet me. He has granted my prayer as such." The Holy Prophet (s.a.) has said, "Do not try to teach them (The Imam (a.s.) becaue they are far more knowledgeable than you." The Holy Prophet (s.a.) has said, "The Imam (a.s.) will never take you out of the gate of guidance and they never make you enter the gate of misguidance." Had the Messenger of Allah remained silent and would not explain anything about his Ahl al-Bayt (family) the family of so and so would have advanced their claim for Imamat (Leadership with Divine Authority). However, Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, has revealed it in His book to confirm the explanantions of His Prophet about Ahl al-Bayt (in the following verse), "People of the house, God wants to remove all kinds of uncleanliness from you and to purify you thoroughly." (33:33) Ali, Fatima, al-Hassan andlhy (a.s.) were there and the Holy Prophet (s.a.) made them to enter under al-Kisa’ (the Cloack) in the house of ’Umm salama and then said, "O Lord, every prophet has a family and a gravity, and these are my family and gravity." ’Umm Salama at this point said, "Am I not of your family?" The Holy Prophet (s.a.) said, "You are in goodness but these are my family and my gravity." Whe the Messenger of Allah passed away Ali (a.s.) had the utmost priority and guardianship of the people all because of what the Messenger of Allah had preached about him. It was because of raising him up for the people and holding his hand in his hand. When Ali (a.s.) (was about to) passed away he could not (and would not) enter Muhammad ibn Ali or al-‘Abbass ibn Ali or anyone of his other sons in the position of Imamt. Otherewise, al-Hassan and al-Husayn (a.s.) would have said, "Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, has revealed about us jus as He has done so about you, and He has commaned people to obey us just as He has commanded people to obey you. The Messenger of Allah has preached to people about us just as he has done so about you. Allah has removed al-Rijs uncleanliness from us just as He has done so to you. When Ali (a.s.) left this world, al-Hassan had the utmost priority for Imamat (Leadership with Divine Authority) because he was the eldest. When was about to die he could not, and would not, enter his sons in the position of Imamat.It is because ;Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, says, ". . . The relatives are closer to each other, according to the Book of God, than the believers and the emigrants. . ." (33:6) He then places Imamat (Leadership with Divine Authority) in his sons. If so, al-Husayn (a.s.) would have said, "Allah has commanded people to obey me just as He has commanded people to obey you and to obey your father. The Messenger of Allah has preached to people about me just as he has preached to people about you and your father. Allah has removed al-Rijs (unleanliness) from me just as He has removed from you and your father. When the Imamat (Leadership with Divine Authority) was infull force with al-Husayn (a.s.) there was no one in his family to who could claim against him as he could calim against his brother and father, had they wanted to diver it from him and they would not do so. After them it found its place with al-Husayn (a.s.) and the interpretation of this verse continued, ". . . The relatives are closer to each other, according to the Book of God, than the believers and the emigrants. . . ." (33:6)
After al-Husayn (a.s.) Imamat (Leadership with Divine Authority) found its place with Ali ibn al-Husayn (a.s.). After Ali ibn al-Husayn (a.s.) it (Leadership with Divine Authority) found its place with Muhammad ibn Ali (a.s.)." The Imam (a.s.) said, "Al-Rijs means doubts, I swear by Allah that we never doubt in our Lord."
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Muhammad ibn Khalid and al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from al-Nadr ibn Suwayd from Yahya ibn ‘Imran al-Halabi from Ayyub ibn al-Hurr and ‘Imran ibn Ali al-Halabi from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) a similar hadith.
H 758, Ch. 64, h 2
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isi from his father from ‘Abdallah ibn al-Mughirah from ibn Muskan from ‘Abd al-Rahim ibn Ruh al-Qasir from abu Ja‘far (a.s.) who has said the following about the words of Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High. "The Prophet has more authority over the believers than themselves. His wives are their mothers. The relatives are closer to each other, according to the Book of God, than the believers and the emigrants. However, you may show kindness to your guardians. This also is written in the Book." (33:6) About who this verse has come? He then said, "It came about the governance (Leadership with Divine Authority). This verse continued to apply to the lineage of al-Husayn (a.s.) after him. We, thus, are of a proirity to governance (Leadership with Divine Authority) and to the Messenger of Allah than the beleivers of immigrants and the Ansar." The narrator has said that then he asked the Imam (a.s.), "Do the sons of Ja‘far have any share in it?" The Imam (a.s.) said,"No, they do not have any share in it." I asked, "Do the sons of al-‘Abbass have any hsare in it?" He said , "No, they do not have any share in it." I counted for him the folks from the descendents of ‘Abd al-Muttalib and in answer to all he would say, "No." The narrator has said that then he forgot the sons of al-Hassan (a.s.). I went to see at another time andasked him, "Do the sons of al-Hassan (a.s.) have any share in it?" He replied, "No, I sweatr by Allah, O ‘Abd al-Rahim, no one related to Muhammad has any share in it except us."
H 759, Ch. 64, h 3
Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu‘alla ibn Muhammad from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Muhammad al-Hashimi from his father from Ahmad ibn ‘Isa from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.). The Imam (a.s.) has said the following about the words of Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High. "Only God, His Messenger, and the true believers who are steadfast in prayer and pay alms, while they kneel during prayer, are your guardians." (5:55) It means to have greater priority and authority to deal with your affairs, your souls and your property. Such priority and authority belong to Allah His Messenger and the believers, Ali and his descendents who are the Imams until the Day of Judgment. Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, has then described them saying, ". . . the true believers who are steadfast in prayer and pay alms, while they kneel during prayer,. . ." Amir al-Mu’minin Ali (a.s.) was praying Zuhr (early afternoon) he was in the second Ruku‘ (bowing ddown). He was wearing a gown that vallued a thousand Dinar (unit of money). The Holy Prophet (s.a) had made him t wear it. King Najashi had sent it as present to him. A begger came and said the Islamic greeting words, "Be in peace O Allah’s authority and the aauthority over the believers who possesses greater priority over them than their onw selves. Give some charity to a destitute. He threw the gown to the begger and pointed with his hand to pick up and take it. At such time Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, sent this verse of the Holy Quran. He combined His blessings with hiis belessing in the form of his children. Whoever of his children with whom Imamat found place was due to this blessing was like him (in giving charity). They would give charity while bowed down in Ruku‘ of prayer. The begger that asked Amir al-Mu’minin Ali (a.s.) for chaarity was from the angels. Those who ask the Imams from his children will also be from the angels."
H 760, Ch. 64, h 4
Ali ibn Ibrahim from his father from Ibn Abu 'Umayr from 'Umar ibn Udhaynah from Zurarah and Fudayl ibn Yasar and Bukayr ibn A'yan and Muhammad ibn Muslim and Burayd ibn Muiawiyah and Abu '1- Jarud, together, that Abu Ja'far (p.b.u.h.) said:
"Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty, charged His Messenger with the Mastership of Ali, and sent down to him: Your Master is only Alldh, and His Messenger and those who believe who perform the prayer and pay zakat. He decreed the Mastership of those in authority, although they (the people) did not understand what it was. Allah command Muhammad (p.b.u.h.a.h.p.) to interpret (and explain) Mastership for them as he had interpreted (and explained) prayer, zakat, fasting and hajj. When this came to him from Allah, the mind of the Messenger of Allah (p.b.u.h.ah.p.) became straitened by it and he became afraid lest they (the people) abandon their religion and come to deny it. So his mind was staitened and he consulted with his Lord, to Whom belong Might and Majesty; and Allah to Whom belong Might and Majesty revealed to him: O Messenger, deliver that which has been sent down to thee from thy Lord; for if thou cost not, thou wig not have delivered His Message. Allah will protect thee from men (al-Ma'idah, 5:67). He complied with the command of Allah, may remembrance of Him be exlated, and endorsed the Mastership of Ali on the day of Ghadir Khumm. He convened the communal prayer, and he commanded the people that those who were witnesses should inform those who were absent."—'Umar ibn Udhaynah said: `Ali but Abu'l-Jarudsaid: 'Abu Ja'far (p.b.uh.) said: "One divine precept came down after another, and the Mastership was the last divine ordinance. And Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty, sent down: Today I have completed your religion for you, and I have perfected My blessing upon you ( al-Matidah, 5 :3 )." Abu Ja' far (p.b.uh. ) said: "Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty, said: 'I shall not send down (any ordinance) to you after this ordinance: I have completed the divine ordinances for you.' " ' "
H 761, Ch. 64, h 5
Ali ibn Ibrahim from $alih ibn as-Sinai from Ja' far ibn Bashir from Harun ibn Kharijah that Abu Basir said:
"I was with Abu Ja'far (p.b.uh.) at a session, when a man said to him: 'Tell me about the Mastership (wilaych) of Ali, whether it is from Allah or from His Messenger?' He became angry, and said: 'Woe betide you! The Messenger of Allah (p.b.uh.a.h.p.) was too fearing of Allah that he should say what he was not commanded by Allah. Indeed, He decreed it (the M.u,,''rship of Ali—p.b.u.h.)- just as Allah decreed prayer, zakat, fasting and hap. ' "
H 762, Ch. 64, h 6
Muhammad ibn Yahya from Ahmad ibn Muhammad and Muh. ammad ibn al-Husayn, the two together from Muhammad ibn Isma'il ibn Bazi' from Mansur ibn Yunus that Abu 'I-Jarud said:
"I heard Abu Ja'far (p.b.u.h.) say: Aliah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty, made five things incumbent on (his) servants: they accepted four and rejected one.' I said: 'May I be made your ransom, name them for me.' He said: 'Prayer; but the people did not understand how to pray, then Jibril (pb.uh.) came down and said: "O Muhammad, inform them of the timings of their prayers." Then zakat was sent down, and He said: "O Muhammad, inform them of their zakit as you have informed them of their prayer." Then fasting was sent down, and, when the day of 'Ashura came, the Messenger of Allah (pb.uh.ah.p.) sent a message to the villages around it (Medina), and they fasted on that day. Then (the fasting) of the month of Ramadan, between (the months of ) Sha'ban and Shawwal, was sent down. Then hajj was sent down, and Jibril (p.b.uh.) came down and said:"Inform them of their hajj as you informed them of their prayer, their Rabat and their fasting." Then the Mastership was sent down, and when this came to him on Friday at 'Arafah (or 'Arafat, the gathering place for the pilgrims on the 9th of Dhu 'l-Hijjah, near Mecca), Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty, sent down: Today I have completed your religion for you, and I have perfected My blessing upon you (al-Ma'idah,5:3). The completion of the religion was through the Mastership of Ali ibn Abu Talib (p.b.uh.). Then the Messenger of Allah (pb.uh.ah.p.) said together with this (verse): "My community has recently experienced the jahiliyyah (the period of ignorance before Islam), and whenever I inform them of this concerning my cousin, one speaker will say this and another will say that. I say (this) to myself without my tongue speaking out: a decisive obligation came to me from Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty, with finality; He threatened me that if I did not make (this) reach (the people), He would punish me." Then was sent down: O Messenger, deliver that which has been sent down to thee from thy Lord; for if thou cost not, thou wilt not have delivered His Message. Allah will protect thee from men. Allah guides not the people of the unbelievers (al-Matidah, S :67). Then the Messenger of Allah (p.b.uh.a.h.p.) took the hand of Ali (pb.uh.) and said: "O people, there was no prophet among the prophets who were before me to whom Allah did not grant a span of life, then tie called him and he answered Him. The time is now near when I shall be called and I will answer. I shall be questioned and you will be questioned, and what will you say?" They said: "We bear witness that you have delivered (what you had to deliver) and advised sincerely, and conveyed what you had. May Allah reward you with the best of the rewards of those who were messengers." He said: "O Allah, I call you to witness"—three times —then he said: "O assembly of believers, that this man is your Master (wall) after me. Let the one among you who witnesses this convey (what he has seen) to the one who is absent." ' Abu Ja'far (p.b.u.h.) said: 'By Allah, (Ali—p.b.u.h.) was the one trusted by Allah over His creation, His unseen (commands), and His religion which He Himself accepted (for His creatures). Then came to the Messenger of Allah (p.b.uh.ah.p.) that which came (his death), and he called Ali and said: "O Ali, I wish to entrust you with what Allah has entrusted me both of His unseen (commands) and of knowledge of llim, and of His creation and His religion which He Himself accepted (for ITis creatures)."' (Abu Ja'far—p.b.u.h.—said:) 'By Allah, O Ziyad, (ibn Mundhir Abu 'I-Jarud), he (the Prophet—p.b.u.h.a.h.p.) has not given any share in this to anyone. Then came to Ali (p.b.u.h.) that which came, and he called his sons, and they were twelve males. lie said to them: "O my sons,Allah, to whom belong Might and Majesty, willed that He bring about in me one of the particularities (He established) with Ya'qub (see al-Baqarah, 2:132 - 133): and Ya'qub called his sons, and they were twelve males. He informed them of the one in authority among them. Indeed, I shall inform you of the one in authority among you. They are these two sons of the Messenger of Allah ( p.b.u.h.a.h.p. ), al-Hassan and al-Husayn (pb.u.t.). Listen to them, and obey and support them. I entrust them with what the Messenger of Allah (p.b.u.h. a.h.p.) entrusted me of what Allah entrusted him of His creation and His unseen (commands) and His religion, which He Himself accepted (for Ills creatures)." Allah made obligatory for them through Ali (p.b. u h.) what he made obligatory for Ali through the Messenger of Allah (pb.uh.ah.p.). Neither of them had any excellence over the one in authority over him except on account of his age. When al-Hassan (p.b. u.h.) was present, al-Husayn (pb.u.h.) said nothing in a session, until (al-Hassan—pb.uh.) rose (to leave).Then came to al-Hassan (p.b.u.h.) what came to him, and he handed it (the Imamite) to al-Husayn. Then came to al-I.lusayn (pb.uh.) what came to him, and he called his eldest daughter, Fatimah hint al-Husayn (pb.uh.) and handed over to her a rolled up writing and an open testament (for Ali ibn al-Husayn—p.b.u.h.). Ali ibn al-Husayn (pb.uh.) was ill with a gastric complaint which (everyone) thought he would die of, so Fatimah handed the writing to Ali ibn al-Husayn (p.b.uh.). Thereafter, by Allah, this writing has come down to us.' "
*al-Husayn ibn Muhammad from MuAliah ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn Jumhur from Muhammad ibn Isma'il ibn Bazi' from Mansur ibn Yunus from Abu 'I-Jarud from Abu Ja'far (pb.u.h.), the same tradition.
H 763, Ch. 64, h 7
Muhammad ibn al-Hassan from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Muhammad ibn 'Isa from Safwan ibn Yahya from Sabbah al-Azraq that Abu Basir said:
"I said to Abu Ja'far (p.b.uh.): 'A man from the Mukhtariyyah1 met me and claimed that Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah (one of the sons of Ali ibn Abu Talib—p.b.u.h.) was an Imam.' Abu Ja'far (pb.uh.) became angry, then he said: 'Did you not say any
1. i.e. the Kaysaniyyah —Nlukhtar ibn Abu 'Ubayd ath-Thaqafi (1/622 — 67/687) was the leader of the uprising to avenge the slaying of al-Husayn (p.b.u.h.) at Karbala' and Kaysan Abu 'Amra was then his leading supporter among the rnaw~li . thing to him?' " He said: "I said: 'No, by Allah! I did not know what to say.' He said: 'Did you not say to him: "The Messenger of Allah (p.b.uh.ah.p.) appointed Ali, al-Hassan and al-Husayn as his successors. When Ali (p.b.uh.) passed away, he appointed al-Hassan and al-Husayn as his successors, and if he (Ali) had tried to withhold it from them, they would have said to him: 'We are successors like you.' But he would never have done this. al-I.lasan appointed al-l.lusayn as his successor, and if he had tried to withhold it from him, he would have said: 'I am a successor like you of the Messenger of Allah (p.b.u.h. ah.p.) and of my father.' But he would not have done this. Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty, said: Some of those bound by blood are nearer (to each other) than others (al-Anfal,8:75; al-Ahzab, 33 :6)." This is about us and about our sons.' "
There are some matters in the ahddith nos. 687 and 689 which need clarification in order to solve their apparent contradiction.
1. The root gh-b-r is one of those which in Arabuc are called added, that is, they have two contrary meanings. One meaning of this word, which is "to have remained" or "to have lasted", is opposite to its second meaning, which is "to have passed" or "to have gone away". Thus the nomen agentis, ghdbir, can take either of these two meanings, both of which are well recorded in original linguistic sources, and there is thus a kind of homonymy in which the two meanings oppose one another. ( See al -Asma'i, al-Addad,p. 58; as- Sijistani, al-Adddd, pp.153 - 154; Ibn Sikkit, al-Adddd, p. 240; al-Anbari, al-Addad, p. 129; Abu 't.-Tayyib al-Halabu, al-Adddd f' kalami '1-'Arab, vol. 2, pp. 527 - 530; Lisdau '1- Arab, vol. 5, pp. 3 - 7; Tdju '1-'arus, vol. 3, pp.436 - 439).
2. The description of knowledge ('ilm) can be made according to three divisions: the knower, the known, and the cause of knowledge. In the second and third divisions, there are three sub-divisions: past, present and future. Thus knowledge may be described as, for example, past in two senses: past according to the cause, for example, I know now because I learnt it yesterday; or past according to what is known, for example, I know what happened yesterday. Similarly with present and future knowledge.
3. In the first of the two ahddith (no. 687), knowledge is divided into three categories: mddin, ghibir and hddith. Since ghdbir is here contrasted with mddin (past), it clearly has the sense we first mentioned, that is, that of continuation. In the second hadith (no.689), knowledge again has a three-fold division, this time into gEdbir, mazbdr and that "which has been pricked in (our) hearts. . ."; hddith was defined in this way in the first hadith. As for gEdbir and mazbdr, in the first hadith they are given as equivalents, but in the second they are two separate divisions. From the-explanations given it is clear that mazbdr has the same sense (i.e., written down) in both abddith, thus we must conclude that ghdbir is used in the first hadith with the sense of mazbdr, and in the second with the sense of mddin. Since we already know that gEdbir has two meanings, this difference can be accounted for by its homonymity.
4. The sense of mddin in the first hadith is given as that which has been explained (mufassar), and thus refers to the cause of the knowledge being in the past, while the more obvious sense, that is, knowledge of what has happened, was probably too clear to require explanation. In the second hadith, ghdbir is explained as that which was before, which must mean "before" in both senses, that is, by cause, and of previous events. Thus mddin in the first and ghdbir in the second hadith have the same sense, that is, knowledge through what preceeded and knowledge of what preceeded. In the second kind of knowledge, that is, gEdbir in the first hadith and mazbdr in the first and second, the explanations given show that the cause of this knowledge is its being written down (marbdr); this is the definition given in the first hadith, but in the second, mazbdr is itself explained as being knowledge of what will happen to us (md ya'tind), which is a description according to what is known. Thus it is clear that this second kind of knowledge has been caused previously, but is of events which are going to happen in the future. It is also clear that this written knowledge is precisly what was mentioned in the ahidith in chapter 40, which concerned such things as the scroll (mu~haf) of Fatimah, peace be upon her.