Takbir means the saying of 'Allah-o-Akbar', so saying as to convey the concept that 'God is too great to be amenable to description or praise" This is one of the more important mottoes of the Muslim. Takbir is a declaration by the creatures of their inability to rise in praise of God. It is a profession of mankind's unworthiness of His Presence. In this connection Imam Khomeini (PLJ.H) has said: 'Allah-o-Akbar doe-s not mean that God is greater than this or that thing because nothing worthy of measure can be found in His presence".

Beside the effect of the repeated utterance of Takbir during the prayers and its devotional influence, it has a special place in the history of the Islamic revolution. The Iranian Muslims overthrew the 2500 years of monarchy of Iran with their repeated recitation of Takbir. With their thunderous recitation of Allah-o-Akbar echoing and roaring as in a torrential deluge, the Muslims of Iran assailed and assaulted the Ba`thist hirelings during the imposed war, uprooting them. By their recitation and repeated cries of Allah-o-Akbar, our people confirmed the basic principles and foundations of the Islamic Republic of Iran and, on occasions, they repair to their rooftops, raise their voices in Takbir and thus keep alive the memories of the great days of the Islamic Revolution.

52) Hudood:

Hudood is the Plural of 'had' meaning limit, boundary and interval between two objects and the end of a thing. In Islamic canon, 'had" means a fixed punishment to be meted out to any offender. It covers penalties for commission of acts of immorality, transgression against other's honour, property, and other common rights, the punishment for which is specified in the Quran and in the authentic traditions.

53) Taazirat:

Taazirat is the plural for taazir. It has various meanings such as: blame, reprove, rebuke, admonish, chastise, etc. including flogging and lashes.

In Islamic Fiqh (canonical laws) taazir applies to punishments, the determination of the 'had" or limits of which is vested in the Qadhi or judge. A judge in an Islamic court can, with due regard to the circumstances of the offender, type of offence or crime, conditions under which it has been committed, fix the 'amount' of punishment provided it does not exceed a certain 'had" or limit. For example, punishment for calling someone bad names for which the defendant has been humiliated.

54) Qisas:

Qisas literally means retaliation or revenge. It also means punishment and retribution, in kind, of a criminal (murderer) or assailant, according to the act committed. Islamic canon law decrees Qisas or retaliation in kind for bodily injuries and harms inflicted by an offender on someone. Qisas is actually a right of the retaliation in kind decreed by law for the victim or his her inheritors.

55) Sulaiman ibn Davood (Solomon son of David):

The prophethood and sovereignty of Davood was, by Divine Will, passed on to Sulaiman although he was the youngest child of Davood. The monarchy of Sulaiman was even greater than that of his father Davood, because, God made the wind subservient to him (Sulaiman) so as to carry his court wherever Sulaiman wished. Almighty God also made Shaitan (Satan) subservient to Sulaiman to carry out his commands. He made the birds obedient to Sulaiman so as to provide shade for him with their wings. The Lord further instructed Sulaiman in the language of birds and granted him extraordinary comprehension and intelligence. All these privileges made Sulaiman's sultanate or monarchy matchless and concentrated all powers in him.

56) Reza Khan:

Reza Khan was an adventurous, ruffian Cossack who, in the solar hejira year 1304 (1924 ad) set up the Pahlavi rule, the last monarchy of Iran. He joined the Cossack militia when 14 years old and in a short time became the most outstanding Cossack officer due only to his ruthlessness, boldness and cruelty or hard heartiness, and attracted the attention of the British who meant to set up a strong government to protect their interests in Iran. With the help of the British, Reza Khan overthrew the Qajar Dynasty, ascended to the throne and, during a 16 year dictatorial rule did all those things part of which we read in the last will of Imam Khomeini (PU.H) as written by the Imam himself. Stunned by the rapid advance of Nazis troops and the fast fall and submission of the European countries to German forces, Reza Khan shook hands of friendship with the Germans so as to be by the side of the victor to the end. After invading Iran the British and Soviet troops, in order to revenge his ingratitude, removed Reza Khan from the throne and sent him off to Mauritius, an island in Indian ocean off east Africa coast in a British ship. Later on, Reza Khan was transferred to Johannesburg and in July 1944 he died in exile.

57) Reconstruction Jihad:

Before the Islamic Revolution relatively few Iranians enjoyed comfort and welfare amenities. Most of the people, especially villagers lived in discomfort and hardship. However, after the Revolution, helping the deprived and the oppressed, especially those who lived in rural areas became a wish and concern of the nation and, for this reason, in 1358 (1980) Imam Khomeini (P.U.H) asked the people to participate in the State's Reconstruction Movement. Thus a revolutionary institution called the Reconstruction Jihad (Jihad-e-Sazandegi) was formed and began to operate. People, particularly the youth and students went to rural areas in groups voluntarily and started to serve the people to please the Lord.

58) Multi-million Afghan and Iraqi Refugees:

The political and economic order of Afghanistan collapsed in the wake of Soviet military aggression against that country in 1979. Muslims who were not the fighting type left behind the burnt lands and took off for Iran and Pakistan. On the other side Saddam's instigation by the superpowers resulted in a bloody war entailing the movement of hundreds of thousands of Iraqi refugees on to the borders of Iran. Thus, the revolutionary Iran had hardly opened eyes in its fledgling days that it had to face, meet head on and put up with a couple of million Afghani and hundreds of thousands of Iraqi homeless refugees. This, however, the Islamic Republic of Iran did, spurred by the inspiration of Islamic brotherhood.

59) Sura-AJ-Tawbah (Repentance):

The Sura Tawbah, also named Bara`t (immunity), is one of the seven lengthy Suras of the Quran. It is the 9th Quranic Sura, does not deal with just one independent topic. Rather it is concerned with various topics such as immunity to

the unbelievers, war with the atheists and the ahl-e-ketab (fit., those of the Book = believers in holy scriptures), comments on the hypocrites, spurring Muslims to fight; reprimand of those who shun jihad (fighting for the cause of God) and some other topics.

60) The Sepah (Guards of the Islamic Revolution):

The Sepah of the Islamic Revolutionary Guards or Paassdaran is an institution under the supreme command of the leadership. Its purpose is to guard the Islamic Revolution and its fruits; steady effort for the realisation of divine ideals, diffusion of the sovereign rule of God's laws and commands in conjunction with the laws of the Islamic Republic of Iran and absolutely enhancing the defensive strength of the Islamic Republic in co-operation with other armed forces, and, also giving military training and organising civil militias.