30. Ar­Rûm
Introduction to this Surat.

In the Name of Allâh, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.
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[These letters are one of the miracles of the Qur'ân, and none but Allâh (Alone) knows their meanings].

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The Romans have been defeated.
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In the nearer land (Syria, Iraq, Jordan, and Palestine), and they, after their defeat, will be victorious.
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Within three to nine years. The decision of the matter, before and after (these events) is only with Allâh, (before the defeat of Romans by the Persians, and after, i.e. the defeat of the Persians by the Romans). And on that Day, the believers (i.e. Muslims) will rejoice (at the victory given by Allâh to the Romans against the Persians),
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With the help of Allâh, He helps whom He wills, and He is the All­Mighty, the Most Merciful.
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(It is) a Promise of Allâh (i.e. Allâh will give victory to the Romans against the Persians), and Allâh fails not in His Promise, but most of men know not.
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They know only the outside appearance of the life of the world (i.e. the matters of their livelihood, like irrigating or sowing or reaping, etc.), and they are heedless of the Hereafter.
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Do they not think deeply (in their ownselves) about themselves (how Allâh created them from nothing, and similarly He will resurrect them)? Allâh has created not the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, except with truth and for an appointed term. And indeed many of mankind deny the Meeting with their Lord. [See Tafsir At­Tabarî, Part 21, Page 24].
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Do they not travel in the land, and see what was the end of those before them? They were superior to them in strength, and they tilled the earth and populated it in greater numbers than these (pagans) have done, and there came to them their Messengers with clear proofs. Surely, Allâh wronged them not, but they used to wrong themselves.
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Then evil was the end of those who did evil, because they belied the Ayât (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, Messengers, etc.) of Allâh and made mock of them.
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Allâh (Alone) originates the creation, then He will repeat it, then to Him you will be returned.
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And on the Day when the Hour will be established, the Mujrimûn (disbelievers, sinners, criminals, polytheists, etc.) will be plunged into destruction with deep regrets, sorrows, and despair.
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No intercessor will they have from those whom they made equal with Allâh (partners i.e. their so­called associate gods), and they will (themselves) reject and deny their partners.
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And on the Day when the Hour will be established, that Day shall (all men) be separated (i.e the believers will be separated from the disbelievers).
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Then as for those who believed (in the Oneness of Allâh Islâmic Monotheism) and did righteous good deeds, such shall be honoured and made to enjoy luxurious life (forever) in a Garden of delight (Paradise).
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And as for those who disbelieved and belied Our Ayât (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, Allâh's Messengers, Resurrection, etc.), and the Meeting of the Hereafter, such shall be brought forth to the torment (in the Hell-fire).
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So glorify Allâh [above all that (evil) they associate with Him (O believers)], when you come up to the evening [i.e. offer the (Maghrib) sunset and ('Ishâ') night prayers], and when you enter the morning [i.e offer the (Fajr) morning prayer].
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And His is all the praises and thanks in the heavens and the earth, and (glorify Him) in the afternoon (i.e. offer 'Asr prayer) and when you come up to the time, when the day begins to decline (i.e offer Zuhr prayer). (Ibn 'Abbâs said: "These are the five compulsory congregational prayers mentioned in the Qur'ân)."
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He brings out the living from the dead, and brings out the dead from the living. And He revives the earth after its death. And thus shall you be brought out (resurrected).
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And among His Signs is this, that He created you (Adam) from dust, and then [Hawwa' (Eve) from Adam's rib, and then his offspring from the semen, and], - behold you are human beings scattered!
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And among His Signs is this, that He created for you wives from among yourselves, that you may find repose in them, and He has put between you affection and mercy. Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who reflect.
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And among His Signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the difference of your languages and colours. Verily, in that are indeed signs for men of sound knowledge.
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And among His Signs is the sleep[] that you take by night and by day, and your seeking of His Bounty. Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who listen.
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And among His Signs is that He shows you the lightning, by way of fear and hope, and He sends down water (rain) from the sky, and therewith revives the earth after its death. Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who understand.
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And among His Signs is that the heaven and the earth stand by His Command, then afterwards when He will call you by single call, behold, you will come out from the earth (i.e from your graves for reckoning and recompense).
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To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth. All are obedient to Him.
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And He it is Who originates the creation, then will repeat it (after it has been perished), and this is easier for Him. His is the highest description (i.e. none has the right to be worshipped but He, and there is nothing comparable unto Him) in the heavens and in the earth. And He is the All­Mighty, the All­Wise.
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He sets forth for you a parable from your ownselves, - Do you have partners among those whom your right hands possess (i.e your slaves) to share as equals in the wealth We have bestowed on you? Whom you fear as you fear each other? Thus do We explain the signs in detail to a people who have sense[] .
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Nay, but those who do wrong follow their own lusts without knowledge, Then who will guide him whom Allâh has sent astray? And for such there will be no helpers.
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So set you (O Muhammad SAW) your face towards the religion of pure Islâmic Monotheism Hanifa (worship none but Allâh Alone) Allâh's Fitrah (i.e. Allâh's Islâmic Monotheism), with which He has created mankind. No change let there be in Khalq­illâh (i.e. the Religion of Allâh Islâmic Monotheism), that is the straight religion, but most of men know not[]. [Tafsir At­Tabarî, Vol 21, Page 41]
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(Always) Turning in repentance to Him (only), and be afraid and dutiful to Him; and perform As­Salât (Iqâmat­as­Salât) and be not of Al­Mushrikûn (the disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah, polytheists, idolaters, etc.).
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Of those who split up their religion (i.e. who left the true Islâmic Monotheism), and became sects, [i.e. they invented new things in the religion (Bid'ah), and followed their vain desires], each sect rejoicing in that which is with it.[]
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And when harm touches men, they cry sincerely only to their Lord (Allâh), turning to Him in repentance, but when He gives them a taste of His Mercy, behold! a party of them associate partners in worship with their Lord.
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So as to be ungrateful for the graces which We have bestowed on them. Then enjoy (your short life); but you will come to know.
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Or have We revealed to them a Scripture, which speaks of that which they have been associating with Him?
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And when We cause mankind to taste of mercy, they rejoice therein, but when some evil afflicts them because of (evil deeds and sins) that their (own) hands have sent forth, lo! They are in despair!
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Do they not see that Allâh enlarges the provision for whom He wills and straitens (it for whom He wills). Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who believe.
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So give to the kindred his due, and to Al­Miskîn (the poor) and to the wayfarer. That is best for those who seek Allâh's Countenance, and it is they who will be successful.
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And that which you give in gift[] (to others), in order that it may increase (your wealth by expecting to get a better one in return) from other people's property, has no increase with Allâh, but that which you give in Zakât seeking Allâh's Countenance then those, they shall have manifold increase.
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Allâh is He Who created you, then provided food for you, then will cause you to die, then (again) He will give you life (on the Day of Resurrection). Is there any of your (so­called) partners (of Allâh) that do anything of that ? Glory be to Him! And Exalted be He above all that (evil) they associate (with Him).
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Evil (sins and disobedience of Allâh, etc.) has appeared on land and sea because of what the hands of men have earned (by oppression and evil deeds, etc.), that Allâh may make them taste a part of that which they have done, in order that they may return (by repenting to Allâh, and begging His Pardon).
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Say (O Muhammad SAW): "Travel in the land and see what was the end of those before (you)! Most of them were Mushrikûn (the disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah, polytheists, idolaters, etc.)."
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So set you (O Muhammad SAW) your face to (the obedience of Allâh, your Lord) the straight and right religion (Islâmic Monotheism), before there comes from Allâh a Day which none can avert it. On that Day men shall be divided [(in two groups), a group in Paradise and a group in Hell].
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Whosoever disbelieves will suffer from his disbelief, and whosoever does righteous good deeds (by practising Islâmic Monotheism), then such will prepare a good place (in Paradise) for themselves (and will be saved by Allâh from His Torment).
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That He may reward those who believe (in the Oneness of Allâh Islâmic Monotheism), and do righteous good deeds, out of His Bounty. Verily, He likes not the disbelievers.
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And among His Signs is this, that He sends the winds as glad tidings, giving you a taste of His Mercy (i.e. rain), and that the ships may sail at His Command, and that you may seek of His Bounty, in order that you may be thankful.
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And indeed We did send Messengers before you (O Muhammad SAW) to their own peoples. They came to them with clear proofs, then, We took vengeance on those who committed crimes (disbelief, setting partners in worship with Allâh, sins, etc.), and (as for) the believers it was incumbent upon Us to help (them).
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Allâh is He Who sends the winds, so they raise clouds, and spread them along the sky as He wills, and then break them into fragments, until you see rain drops come forth from their midst! Then when He has made them fall on whom of His slaves as He will, lo! they rejoice!
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And verily before that (rain), just before it was sent down upon them, they were in despair!
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Look then at the effects (results) of Allâh's Mercy, how He revives the earth after its death. Verily! That (Allâh) Who revived the earth after its death shall indeed raise the dead (on the Day of Resurrection), and He is Able to do all things.
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And if We send a wind [which would spoil the green growth (tilth) brought up by the previous rain], and they see (their tilth) turn yellow, behold, they then after their being glad, would become unthankful (to their Lord Allâh as) disbelievers.
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So verily, you (O Muhammad SAW) cannot make the dead to hear (i.e. the disbelievers, etc.), nor can you make the deaf to hear the call, when they show their backs, turning away.
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And you (O Muhammad SAW) cannot guide the blind from their straying; you can make to hear only those who believe in Our Ayât (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.), and have submitted to Allâh in Islâm (as Muslims).
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Allâh is He Who created you in (a state of) weakness, then gave you strength after weakness, then after strength gave (you) weakness and grey hair. He creates what He wills. And it is He Who is the All­Knowing, the All­Powerful (i.e. Able to do all things).
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And on the Day that the Hour will be established, the Mujrimûn (criminals, disbelievers, polytheists, sinners, etc.) will swear that they stayed not but an hour, thus were they ever deluded [away from the truth (i.e they used to tell lies and take false oaths, and turn away from the truth) in this life of the world)].
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And those who have been bestowed with knowledge and faith will say: "Indeed you have stayed according to the Decree of Allâh, until the Day of Resurrection, so this is the Day of Resurrection, but you knew not."
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So on that Day no excuse of theirs will avail those who did wrong (by associating partners in worship with Allâh, and by denying the Day of Resurrection), nor will they be allowed (then) to return to seek Allâh's Pleasure (by having Islâmic Faith with righteous deeds and by giving up polytheism, sins and crimes with repentance).
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And indeed We have set forth for mankind, in this Qur'ân every kind of parable. But if you (O Muhammad SAW) bring to them any sign or proof, (as an evidence for the truth of your Prophethood), the disbelievers are sure to say (to the believers): "You follow nothing but falsehood, and magic."
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 Thus does Allâh seal up the hearts of those who know not [the proofs and evidence of the Oneness of Allâh i.e. those who try not to understand true facts that which you (Muhammad SAW) have brought to them].
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So be patient (O Muhammad SAW). Verily, the Promise of Allâh is true, and let not those who have no certainty of faith, discourage you from conveying Allâh's Message (which you are obliged to convey).

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